Who Invented the Space Shuttle?

Who Invented the Space Shuttle?...

The first functional shuttle was the Columbia, launched in 1981. As this overview of the history of the space shuttle will make clear, the shuttle was designed by NASA and not by a single individual. Development Plans for the space shuttle started even before the Apollo lunar missions in 1969. The main concerns at that point were logistics; how much the shuttle would cost and how it was to be built. It was agreed that the basic set up would include rocket boosters, a disposable external tank and the winged orbiter. The program was officially made public by President Nixon three years later. The main contractor was Rockwell International (known as North American Aviation back then). Before Columbia was built, a series of prototypes were designed. The history of the space shuttle began with the first completed prototype, the Constitution. Due to insistent public demand the orbiter’s name was changed to the Enterprise after the TV series Star Trek. The Enterprise was unveiled on September 17, 1976. It conducted a series of test flights, vital to the development of the shuttle. Following the successful experiment, the engineers started working on the shuttle. The Shuttle Fleet The shuttle Columbia was constructed in Palmdale, California. It was finished and sent to the Kennedy Space Center. The date was March 25, 1979. The Columbia took off on April 12, 1981. The history of the space shuttle shows that the Columbia made a total of 28 flights. A year after Columbia’s launch, the Challenger was sent to the Kennedy Space Center. This was followed by the Discovery in 1983 and the shuttle Atlantis two years later. Columbia was destroyed in 2003 as it made its way back to Earth, killing the seven crew...
Who Invented the Skyscraper?

Who Invented the Skyscraper?...

Defined as a super tall building that is continuously habitable, a skyscraper is a fascinating invention. The Empire State Building in New York City, the Willis Tower in Chicago and the Taipei 101 in Taiwan are just some of the most impressive skyscrapers ever created. Today, these buildings serve as practical solutions to the increasing scarcity of land worldwide. Aside from these things, it is also good to know the history of these tall buildings including who invented the skyscraper. The Invention of the Skyscraper Who invented the skyscraper? After he created the first ever load-bearing structural frame for the Home Insurance Building within the City of Chicago in Illinois in 1885, it is but right to credit architect William Le Baron Jenney as the Father of American skyscrapers. The ten-storey building was the very first skyscraper in the world. In 1891, American architects Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler designed the Wainwright Building in Saint Louis, Missouri. It was also a ten-storey building. However, many people considered it the first true skyscraper rather than the Home Insurance Building because it was constructed with steel frames. Furthermore, it featured vertical bands, which helped emphasized the building’s height even more. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Information After the early skyscrapers were created, fire restrictions and height limits were introduced. In 1895, the American Surety Building was completed in New York. It was the tallest building during that time. In 1930, the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City. In 1931, the Empire State Building, which was comprised of 102 floors, was completed. In 1932, the Boerentoren was constructed in Antwerp, Belgium. It was made up of 26 floors. In 1940, the Torre Piacentini was completed with 31 floors within the...
Who Invented the iPod?

Who Invented the iPod?

Ipod is one of the most popular product lines of portable media players introduced by Apple Inc. on October 23rd in 2001. Some of the models included in the product line are the Classic, Touch, Shuffle as well as the Nano. This media player has the capacity to store, play and organize audio as well as video files. Additionally, it can play different audio formats such as Protected AAC, MP3 and WAV. The items in the product line have various hardware like microcontroller, audio chip, storage medium and batteries. To learn more about this media player, it is best to start with identifying the people behind the development of the merchandise. History Who invented the Ipod? The product line was developed by the members of a special team assigned by Apple Inc. CEO Steve Jobs. The team was consisted of hardware engineering senior vice president Jon Rubistein, design senior vice president Jonathan Ive, engineer Tony Fadell, engineer Michael Dhuey as well as Steve Jobs. The name of the product line was invented by freelance copywriter Vinnie Chieco. The company also acknowledged British inventor Kane Kramer in the development of the idea for the creation of Ipod. Additional Information and Other Important Details Some models of iPod can store photos with any of these media formats, PNG, TIFF, GIF and BMP. Other products in the line can store and play files with the MPEG-4 format. The media players included in the line are compatible with Microsoft Windows as well as MAC OS. The products can also be connected to a personal computer or laptop. Consumers can also transfer files from laptops or computers to the media players and vice versa. To make the products more attractive and easy to use,...
Who Invented the Color Television?

Who Invented the Color Television?...

Early Traces of Color Television Well, early traces points to a German patent that was garnered in 1904. This was said to contain the first recorded proposal written for a color television. In 1928, Charles Jenkins receives the license for the first television station issued by the Federal Radio Commission. Another known patent was filed by Vladimir Zworykin in 1925 for a television system using all-electronic color. The transmission and television reception of the images was done with what was called a kinescope tube. However, both patents did not receive instant success for the color television system. Nevertheless, these were the earliest records in history for color television, and these early records of inventors were known to be the ones who invented the color television system. Other Attempts in Modifying the System With Peter Goldmark leading the group of CBS researchers, Goldmark invented a particular mechanical color TV system in 1940. This system was actually based on John Logie Baird’s designs in 1928. But this didn’t last long in the market. Rise to Commercial Success It was only during the year 1949 did televisions rose to commercial success with the monochrome television. Around ten million of these television sets were sold to a lot of people. And television programs were made available to the pleasure of the public. But color television systems can only be licensed if the broadcast signal for colored systems can be received as a monochrome signal on these television sets. Attempts at Making a National Standard System In 1950, FCC authorized CBS’s color televisions system as the standard system throughout the nation even though the system used was not actually compatible with early products of black and white monochrome TV sets. (CBS and RCA are...
Who Invented the Floppy Disk?

Who Invented the Floppy Disk?...

The history of the floppy disk is quite straightforward. It was invented by a team of IBM researchers led by Alan Shugart. The chief designer of Shugart’s team was David Noble. The first floppy disks became available in 1971. Development of the Floppy Disk The goal of IBM was to create a storage device where users could store information. Even as hard disks emerged, it became clear that users would need to backup their files and software programs. The first floppy disks were called memory disks. The ones that came out in 1971 were 8 inches in diameter and made of plastic. It also had magnetic iron oxide. The early history of the floppy disk shows that it was a success. Aside from IBM, other companies would improve upon the IBM device. Among the pioneers were Memorex and Shugart Associates. The 5 ¼ Inch Disk Although the 8 inch disk was widely used it had its limitations. It was very big and was not very reliable in the long run. In 1976, Shugart Associates started producing the 5 ¼ disks. Within two years, nine other companies started making these disks. Its popularity would render the 8 inch floppies obsolete. The early 5 ¼ inch disks came in two formats: the hard sectored (90 kb) and soft sectored (110 kb). Over time the hard sector would disappear. The 3 ½ Inch Disk The history of the floppy disk shows that the 5 ¼ disk would share the same fate as the 8 inch drive. During the early to mid 1980s, the disk was sufficient for storing programs and backing up files. But eventually the programs got larger and so did the files. In response companies began making other devices like...
Who Invented the Personal Computer?

Who Invented the Personal Computer?...

When you study the history of the personal computer, the records will show that Ed Roberts was the first to use the term. He used it to describe his invention, the Altiair 8800 which appeared in 1975. However some experts believe the Kenback- 1 (made in 1971) was the first PC although the term was not used to describe it. The Earliest Computers Before the term personal computer was used, machines that could be operated by a single individual were called microcomputers. These machines became widespread when the microprocessor was invented in the 1970s. But as far back as 1968, STI researcher Douglas Englebart (inventor of the mouse) had demonstrated the use of a mouse, video and typing on computers. In the history of the personal computer, this event has come to be known as the mother of all demos. But during the 70s, computers were available only in electronic shops. Most of them made use of switches and panels. The keyboards and disks had to be purchased separately. The Micral is regarded as the first non assembly, commercially available computer. It used the Intel 8008 processor. It came out in 1973. The Apple II and IBM PCs In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak produced the Apple Computer. A hit, they followed it up with the Apple II. Its success was the turning point in the history of the personal computer. Computers were now sold as complete packages. Software for business and education also started coming out. Word processors, spreadsheets and games were also beginning to appear. Apple’s success inspired IBM to do the same thing. The company went on to make computers using an open bus and open architecture system. This design would ensure that software developers...
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