Who Invented the X Ray?

Who Invented the X Ray?

X Ray is a kind of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation that has shorter wavelength as compared to the ultraviolet ray. This radiation is very useful for crystallography as well as diagnostic radiography. Because of the functions of the electromagnetic radiation, the term is commonly used to refer to an image that can be created using diagnostic radiography. The X Ray is helpful in identifying various medical conditions so it is best that we recognize the people behind the development of this diagnostic technique. History Who invented the X Ray? X Ray was invented by several scientists who examined cathode rays in 1875. The scientists involved in this special project were Wilhelm Rontgen, Philip Lennard and Johann Hittorf. Rontgen is a physics professor in Germany who studied the electromagnetic rays produced by Crookes tubes. He published a paper about his discovery on December 28, 1895. He called the ray as X since it is still unknown. Rontgen received a Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention. Lennard and Hittorf both work with Rontgen in the analysis of cathode rays. Hittorf found that there would be flawed shadows when unexposed photographic plates were placed near the Crookes tubes. However, Hittorf did not investigate the shadows. Additional Information and Other Important Details Other important personalities in the invention of X Ray Ivan Pulyui, Nikola Tesla, Fernando Sanford as well as Thomas Edison. Pulyui was an experimental physics professor at the Prague Polytechnic. Several weeks the publication of Rontgen’s paper on the X ray photograph, Pulyui published a report in journals about high quality X Ray photographs in London as well as in Paris. Tesla created a special and effective single electrode X Ray tube. He published a paper about his invention in...
Who Invented Gunpowder?

Who Invented Gunpowder?

There is really no way to tell who invented gunpowder. Like a lot of the ancient inventions we enjoy today, gunpowder came about and was developed gradually through years of testing, use, and perfection. It is interesting that we can trace its origin several centuries into the past. In fact, you can trace the origin of gunpowder into the early days of ancient China. Early Origins Though we don’t know who invented gunpowder exactly we can find many people who have written about it and having it mentioned in their annals. One of the earliest records that mention anything like gunpowder dates back to 142 AD during China’s Han Dynasty. Wei Boyang is the first to have written something that described something like it. He wrote about a certain mixture that is made from three powders that dance and fly violently. Though he did not mention the word gunpowder what he describes is exactly what gunpowder is. We know that gunpowder is an explosive that does contain three foundational ingredients. We can thus surmise that the person who invented gunpowder lived prior to Boyang’s writing. Ge Hong, a scientist who lived during China’s Chin Dynasty around 300 AD wrote down the ingredients of gunpowder. Though having mentioned the ingredients he is not credited as the one who invented gunpowder. Ge Hong even went on to describe the explosion it makes. You mix the appropriate portions of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate to make it. People really began to put gunpowder to use in 700 AD during the T’ang Dynasty. The emperors during this dynasty used gunpowder in order to put up elaborate fireworks displays. But it was only in the year 904 AD when it was put to use...
Who Invented the Typewriter?

Who Invented the Typewriter?...

Do you know who invented the typewriter? With the continuous emergence of mechanical gadgets like computer keyboards, you may have thought that the earlier products of geniuses that made life easier for those who write may be lost in memory. Not so. Keep in mind that without the person who invented the typewriter, these computer keyboards wouldn’t have been made and produced nowadays if not from an earlier proto-type in the form of a typewriter. The First Model That is why we need to give credit to Christopher Latham Sholes, an American mechanical engineer, who was able to invent the first known practical modern typewriter in 1866 together with some colleagues, Samuel Soulé and Carlos Glidden. This first version was patented in 1868. After thousands of experiments done in five years, and after having patented their inventions twice, Sholes, Soulé, and Glidden were able to have a more improved version that is actually similar to some of the current typewriter models. The QWERTY Standard With the earlier version made by Sholes and friends, the best feature of the typewriter that they consider is the type-bar system and its universal keyboard. But then, after sometime, with – perhaps – constant use, they noticed that the typewriter keys jammed. To help the situation, James Densmore, who was also a business associate of the group, made a good suggestion that would help the model work better. The suggestion involved splitting up the typewriter’s keys for specific letters of the alphabet that is usually used together to help slow down the process of typing. Later, this became known as the “QWERTY” keyboard that we now use in typewriters and also computer keyboards. The Product Market Since Sholes was not very patient enough –...
Who Invented the Computer?

Who Invented the Computer?...

There is no single inventor of the computer. What the history of the computer will show is that several people contributed to its growth. The Earliest Computers Because the term is so general, it’s hard to pinpoint which was the first one. Some point to the abacus, a device invented in 1621 by the mathematician Will Oughthred. The apparatus could perform simple math calculations including logarithms. In 1642 Pascal came out with the Pascaline and is regarded as the world’s first calculator. Other calculating devices were made by Gottfried Leibniz and Charles Thomas. In 1812 Charles Babbage came up with the Difference Engine. In the history of the computer, some actually cite this as the first one. The idea was that it could perform several math calculations and be programmed by a single individual. However he was never able to finish the project due to technical reasons. Digital Computers As early as 1906, the scientist Alan Turing had written about a digital computer. But it was in 1939 that his vision was fully realized. It was invented by Dr. John Astanoff. But it was during World War II that computer innovations really took off. The reason was that the Allies needed them to break the Germans’ war codes. One of the earliest high speed machines was called ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integration and Calculator). The ENIAC marked a turning point in the history of the computer. 1,800 sq ft large, it was a thousand times more powerful than any computer built before it. In 1950 the SWAC was invented. It possessed a clock and a storage system. Around the same time patents for transistors were filed. In the 1960s magnetic disks began to be used to store programs. The end result...
Who Invented the White Board?

Who Invented the White Board?...

The history of whiteboards began in the mid 1960s. It’s still a mystery as to who actually invented it. Some think that it began in China, but there is no real way to be sure. The first company to mass produce porcelain on steel write on / wipe off whiteboard (called LCS) was Claridge Products. Whiteboards and Chalkboards The whiteboards evolved from the chalkboards (or blackboards). Although chalkboards were popular, some teachers and students were allergic to chalk. When material was wiped off from the boards, the dust would fly off. By the 1960s, early versions of the whiteboard began to appear. However the chalkboards were still popular. It was in the late 1980s that reports of chalk allergies became widely known, changing the history of whiteboards forever. The Evolution of the Whiteboard The early ones that came out were comprised of melamine. Not only was it costly, but excessive use left faint images of the material on it. Cleaning was also difficult. The enamel on steel write on / wipe off magnetic whiteboard was produced by Magiboards in Britain. In the United States, inventor Michael Boone helped popularized the Boone Board dry erase board. Improvements As the whiteboard became more popular, innovations and improvements from various companies emerged. Most important of these innovations was reducing the glossiness of the surface. This gloss resulted in glares which was distracting for students. The history of whiteboards shows that by the late 2000s, high quality paint coating was being used. This resulted in a very clear surface that was easy to write on. Whiteboard Surfaces Most whiteboards use any of the following types for their materials: melamine, painted steel, magnetic glass or porcelain. Melamine is the least costly and is also...
Who Invented the Stock Ticker?

Who Invented the Stock Ticker?...

It was in the year 1867 when Edward A. Calahan came up with the invention of the first stock telegraph printing instrument. But was Calahan noted as the first person who invented the stock ticker and was this model the very first product that came out? Or is there someone else who should get the credit? The Telegraph Years ago, Claude Chappe invented a non-electric telegraph that used a visual system. This optical system was created in 1794. After some time, with many modifications (like the invention of the Morse Code by Samuel Morse), the use of the telegraph widely spread. Companies were set up, and jobs were given to people who wanted to work for a telegraph firm. From Calahan’s Ideas to the Creation of the Stock Telegraph Calahan was working in the American Telegraph Company, then, when Calahan’s invention of the stock telegraph was created in 1867. Calahan thought that stock prices during those times could actually be produced through a form of telegraphy. And, thus, Calahan started to work on these ideas to create a very useful invention. When the invention was made, it produced an interesting sound that actually influenced its name, the stock ticker. Thomas Edison’s Part in the Invention Before Thomas Edison became known as the inventor of the electric light bulb, this inventor actually started as a simple telegrapher in younger years. After successfully improving the stock ticker model, Edison took on more challenging experiments to create more things. Edison’s invention was called as the Universal Stock Printer. For the creation of this improved model of the stock ticker, and other related creations, Edison was able to put up the first laboratory – albeit, small in size – and a facility for...
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