Who Invented the Gatling Gun?

Who Invented the Gatling Gun?...

The Gatling gun is arguably one of the more famous and recognizable among all of the firearms ever made. Due to its distinct appearance and its unique capabilities, many are familiar with Gatling gun, even those who are not well-versed with firearms. Despite this familiarity even with the most gun-averse of laymen however, not many know who invented the Gatling gun along with the history of its design and development and its impact on modern warfare. As its name suggests, it is easy to remember who invented the Gatling gun. This because the man who invented the Gatling gun lent it its name. The man who invented the Gatling gun is Richard J. Gatling, an inventor responsible for numerous patents in the United States in the latter half of the 19th Century. Despite the Gatling gun’s fearsome reputation in the battlefield, the man who invented the Gatling gun reasoned his newly-designed gun will actually lessen the casualties in warfare. Since the Gatling gun will allow relatively few personnel to deliver tremendous fire power (for its time), less soldiers will then be needed to fight wars and therefore lesser battle casualties. Of course we all know that the idealistic notion of Gatling that fewer men will die in battle as a result of his invention’s tremendous fire power was baseless. But the man who invented the Gatling gun was in part right since for the first time in history, a few personnel with the help of his invention will be able inflict massive damage to the enemy. Battle before was mostly a man-to-man struggle between combatants but with the Gatling gun, a soldier can single-handedly inflict heavy casualties on the other side. More than a hundred years after its invention,...
Who Invented the Cassette Player?

Who Invented the Cassette Player?...

Who invented the cassette player? Can you guess? You probably know that before the emergence of VCDs and CDs, people listened to cassettes with their favorite songs recorded in them. But, sadly, during that time not much was actually said about the real person who invented the cassette player. An Interesting History Lesson In the year 1888, there was a man by the name of Oberlin Smith who had a very intriguing concept. Oberlin suggested the usage of magnetic storage in those early times as a method for recording audio. But the concept didn’t push through immediately. It was actually a few years later, in the year 1898 to be exact, when this idea had taken its existence. Vlademar Poulsen was the person who had invented the earlier concept of Oberlin. In 1928, Fritz Pfleumer developed the magnetic tape. But it was not that compact as how the modern cassette player was. Compact versions didn’t emerge until a few years later. The First Version in the Market In the year 1963, the market opened its doors to the first version of the cassette player. This was introduced in the audio business by Philips, a famous audio company. Initially, the European market was a good start in marketing this particular product. Later, it arrived in America, a year after its introduction to the European market. The initial product was known as the Compact Cassette. In the late 1970s, this product became just as famous as the LPs in those days. The first models of the cassette players were actually designed as dictation machines and recording devices for personal use instead of devices for music. It was only in the year 1966 when the cassette player was used as a musical...
Who Invented DNA Fingerprinting?

Who Invented DNA Fingerprinting?...

DNA fingerprinting (also known as DNA typing) is a special technique used to identify individuals based on their DNA profiles. One of the important uses of this technique is to provide reliable and credible evidence in courts. Other uses of the technique are for identifying one’s paternity and maternity as well as for personal identification. In several countries, the national government has DNA databases, which contain the DNA structures of citizens. To know more about this technique, let us take a look at the history of DNA fingerprinting. History of DNA Profiling Who invented DNA fingerprinting? DNA profiling was invented by scientist Sir Alec Jeffreys in his laboratory at the University of Leicester in Great Britain in 1985. The reason behind the invention of the technique is to identify which parts of the DNA sequences are different from an individual to another. However, at this time, the technologies that they can use to determine the sequences were limited. In this regard, Jeffreys only found small differences in the sequence when in fact; there are numerous variable sequences in the DNA. Jeffreys continued searching for techniques that can be used to identify all the varying sequences named as minisatellites. In order to succeed, he created a special probe that would be used to check if the minisatellites would react with a myoglobin gene. To do the experiment, he got DNA samples from his parents. On September 10, 1984, Jeffreys saw an inheritance pattern between the samples. He found out that DNA fingerprinting is a highly efficient technique that can be used to identify one’s paternity as well as maternity. He reported his findings in lectures and reports. He also published research at the Nature magazine about the technique. Two weeks...
Who Invented Genetic Engineering?

Who Invented Genetic Engineering?...

The history of genetic engineering began in the early 1900s with the works of the Austrian monk and scientist Gregor Mendel. Mendel’s work led to the establishment of genetics as a scientific field. From this genetic engineering would appear through the works of other scientists. The 1940s to 1950s Of course, plant breeders long ago learned how to alter the seeds. But in 1944, Oswald Avery Colin McLeod and Maclyn McCarty discovered that DNA was the carrier of genetic information. This discovery led to intense studies on DNA and its properties. The breakthrough came in 1953 when Watson and Crick decoded the structure of the DNA, vital to the history of genetic engineering. During the 1960s, Ian Wilmut started developing the techniques for cloning animals using cells of other mammals. It was in 1968 that the Swiss microbiologist Werner Arber discovered restriction enzyme. The following year type II restriction enzymes were uncovered by American biologist Hamilton Smith. This discovery, along with the works of Daniel Nathan, broke new ground in DNA research. The 1970s The 1970s saw an increase in research into genetic engineering. Most of the experiments were on bacteria and other microorganisms. The research was focused on the plasmids, DNA rings discovered in bacteria. It was during this decade that gene isolation and alteration techniques were developed in the US. These discoveries were vital in the history of genetic engineering. It allowed scientists to insert genes into other plants or cells. This could also be done on animals. In effect this changed the heredity of the organism. Further research showed that type I and II enzymes were pivotal in genetic research. In 1973, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen invented a process for slicing DNA and joining it...
Who Invented the Hubble Telescope?

Who Invented the Hubble Telescope?...

A study of the history of the Hubble telescope will reveal it was named after the scientist Edwin Hubble. The telescope was created by numerous engineers, contractors and scientists at NASA. Work on the space telescope began in 1977. The Hubble was launched on April 25, 1990. Historical Background As early as the 1930s, scientists had been pointing out the benefits of having a telescope in space. It would provide a clear and more comprehensive view of space without being obstructed by the Earth’s atmosphere. As the US space program began in the 1950s the idea for the space telescope began gaining support. The history of the Hubble telescope shows that a number of proposals were sent to Congress. Finally on 1977, Congress approved funding for the program, 15 years after it was first proposed by NASA. Construction and Launch The Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked with the construction of the telescope. The Goddard Space Flight Center was employed to create the ground controls and the equipment to be used. Meanwhile the Perkin Elmer Corporation worked on the mirrors and other contractors were employed to work on the design and other components. It was also at this time that the Hubble name was chosen. Edwin Hubble was the scientist who discovered that the universe was expanding. The history of the Hubble telescope shows that it was supposed to be launched in 1986. But the Challenger disaster occurred and the space program was put on hold. The telescope was finally put into orbit in 1990. When Hubble sent back images, scientists discovered a flaw in the mirror. It was in 1993 that NASA was able to rectify the problem by installing a camera on the mirror. The component was...
Who Invented the Potato Clock?

Who Invented the Potato Clock?...

In these environmentally-conscious times, everyone’s been looking towards developing alternative sources of energy, from solar power to geothermal energy. On a much smaller scale, it has been proven that energy can also be drawn from the most unlikely of sources: a potato. The Potato Clock was invented in 1983 by one William A. Borst. The impetus for this unassuming but clever gadget started rather innocently, when Borst was assisting his stepdaughter on a science project. He was reminded of a physics demonstration that he had witnessed in high school, in which a battery was created by affixing 2 metal prods into a potato. Borst thought of replicating that experiment, but with the addition of an electric-powered device which could run on the small charge of energy that the potato battery would generate. Borst settled on a digital clock, but he realized that it would require a greater amount of energy than just one potato battery can generate in order to function. So to amplify the charge to be delivered to the clock, he decided to connect 2 potatoes in sequence. The move proved conclusive, and he was indeed able to power a digital clock by drawing electricity from a couple of potatoes. A further experiment was then made to find out how long the potato-powered clock would operate. The time-duration test was conducted in an auto-repair shop that Borst had co-owned at the time. A customer happened to walk into the shop and asked about the curious device that was being tested. As it turns out, the customer was working for the local newspaper, which would then run an article about Borst’s invention. Eventually, word about the potato clock would spread, and what started as a modest school project...
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