Who Invented the Alkaline Battery?

Who Invented the Alkaline Battery?...

An alkaline battery is a kind of a rechargeable battery or disposable battery that is dependent on the reaction between the compound manganese oxide and the element zinc. Many consumers prefer to use alkaline batteries over zinc-carbon batteries because alkaline batteries have longer shelf life as well as higher energy density. One of the most important materials used in the development of the batteries is the alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide. Before we proceed with the characteristics of the battery, let us look at its history, including the person behind the invention of the alkaline battery. Historical Background Who invented the alkaline battery? The first alkaline battery was invented by one of the scientists of Energizer, Lewis Frederick Urry, in 1959. The prototype battery developed by Urry was displayed at the Smithsonian National Museum of History. In order to prove the durability of the battery, Urry installed the alkaline battery in a toy car and a zinc-carbon battery in another toy car. He raced the cars around a room. As expected, the toy car with the zinc-carbon battery was the first to stop. With the desire of the company to limit the use of mercury in batteries, it introduced the AAAA alkaline battery in 1989. Additional Information and Other Important Details An alkaline battery has a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts. To attain multiple voltages, it is important to make a series of alkaline batteries. When the battery was discharged, the zero-load voltage may vary from 1.5 volts to 1.65 volts. The voltage depends on the level of zinc oxide and manganese oxide in the electrolyte. Almost all alkaline batteries can be recharged. However, to do this successfully, there are some pointers to know. The first thing one should...
Who Invented the Elevator?

Who Invented the Elevator?...

Elevators make it possible to build skyscrapers even with a hundred floors or more. It must have been tough inventing something like that. But like other invented things, they started out simple—as a platform pulled manually. Who invented the elevator in primitive times, then? The first Inventor Elevators or lifts were used in ancient times. Historical records say they were used as early as the third century B.C. The first elevator inventor used raw human power to pull huge objects as blocks of stone using a pulley. There is no record of the man or men who invented the elevator that time, but sure enough the mechanical equipment was already in use then. Otis the Egyptian Egypt is among the first civilizations recorded to have been engaged in large-scale construction. An Egyptian probably was the one who invented the elevator. Otis was an Egyptian servant of Queen Elizabeth. He was said to be the one who invented the elevator. It was pulled using men or animals. Where water was available, water wheel was used. Archimedes’ Box Archimedes also built lifts for moving heavy objects up and down. But his were boxes, not just platforms. They were in popular use in the Middle Ages. Then in the time of King Louis XIV, the boxes were re-designed to carry people. Who specifically re-designed them was not mentioned, so Archimedes still could not be the one who invented the elevator for people. Otis the American In the 19th century Elisha Graves Otis introduced power elevators with safety brakes. Elevators then were powered by steam, which was a major breakthrough from the traditional manual operation. However, they were deemed unsafe due to cables that were susceptible to breakage. So Otis introduced something better:...
Who Invented the Cell Phone?

Who Invented the Cell Phone?...

The mobile or cell phone was invented by Martin Cooper in 1973. The history of the cell phone shows that Nathan Stubblefield had a patent in 1908. However the patent was for cave radio phones and not the mobile device as we know it today. Early History As stated, Stubblefield’s patent was for cave radio telephones, as the device was known then. The mobile phone’s origin can be traced back to the 1940s. Bell Labs had already made some mobile base stations. These were refined in the 1960s but they were mainly for radio telephony. The main users of radio telephony during those days were the military. These hand held radio gadgets had been patented in 1969 to George Sweigert. The history of the cell phone began in 1945 and these early phones are now called zero generation phones. It consisted of a solitary base that would cover a specific spot and had very limited coverage. First Generation Phones Cooper’s invention was patented on October 17, 1973. the first phone call was made by Cooper months before he applied for the patent, on April 3, 1973. He made the call to Dr. Joel Engel, a researcher at AT&T’s Bell Labs. Cooper was working at Motorola at the time, and the call was made with several media people present. Soon after, companies started making cellular networks. Although the telephone was still dominant, other companies started coming out with cell phones, although they were still large and heavy. Second Generation Phones The next stage in the history of the cell phone was the development of 2G (second generation) phones. Among the earliest 2G phone systems were GSM, IDEN, and IS-95. GSM networks started appearing in 1991 (specifically in Finland). Compared with...
Who Invented the Light Bulb?

Who Invented the Light Bulb?...

When asked who invented the light bulb there are those who quickly answer that it was Thomas Edison. Unfortunately it was not Edison who invented the light bulb since there are at least 22 others who have invented something that resembles something like it. There were actually others who had come up with the idea to generate light from electricity. Comparing Edison Thomas Edison’s invention may not be the first but it is one that far exceeds many of the earlier inventions. It is noted that Edison did not just create a new type of light bulb he also created an integrated lighting system. Origin As early as the 1800’s there have been inventors who have tried to convert electricity and produce light. Sir Humphry Davy was one who was a bit successful. He was an English physician who was able to pass an electric current through strips of platinum. The only drawback with his experiments was that the platinum strips dissipated rather quickly and he was unable to create light. He then created the Arc lamp in 1809. He was able to make an electrical connection among a couple of charcoal rods that were connected to a battery. The light was quite bright however it was small as well. Though we can not credit Sir Humphry Davy as the one who invented the light bulb he did add to its development. Further Developments The next 50 years after Davy’s success will bring up others who would strive to lengthen the life of the light produced from electricity. A notable inventor is Warren de la Rue who was able to make a more efficient design. He used a platinum coil in a vacuum tube that produced light a lot...
Who Invented Electricity?

Who Invented Electricity?...

A study of the history of electricity makes it clear that no single scientist or inventor is responsible for its invention. No single person learned how to use it. Rather it was the culmination of the works of various researchers spanning several years. Earliest Mention of Electrical Use Historical records show that static electricity was already known to the ancient Greeks. In the 6th century BC a Greek named Thales of Miletus discovered that rubbing a fur would make a couple of objects attract one another. According to the legend he experimented with various objects. It was with amber that he was able to produce electrical sparks. Discoveries in the 15th Century The next important chapter in the history of electricity took place at the onset of the Renaissance. The Italian physicist Girolamo Cardano discovered fundamental aspects of electrical power and magnetism. His associate William Gilbert expounded on Cardano’s theories. In 1660 Otto von Guericke invented an electrostatic generator. This was the beginning of a new scientific field of study. This device, along with others that followed, revealed a number of things. The first is that electricity can move across a vacuum. The second is that materials can be divided between insulators and conductors. Finally, it was learned that electricity can be either in positive or negative forms. The 17th to 19th Centuries This period was crucial in the history of electricity. First of all, the capacitor was invented. Just as important was the discovery that static electricity could be changed into a current. It was also around this time that Benjamin Franklin performed his famous experiment with a kite. His experiments about lightning and electricity has been subject to debate, but his contribution to electricity theory cannot be...
Who Invented the Refrigerator?

Who Invented the Refrigerator?...

A study of the history of the refrigerator will reveal that the Scottish chemist William Cullen to be the first to use artificial refrigeration. He did it in Glasglow University in 1748. But the idea of preserving food using cool temperatures began much earlier. Early Experiments One of the earliest experiments was performed by Francis Bacon. In 1626 he thought of using snow to preserve chicken meat. He bought some chicken and filled it with snow. Unfortunately he got pneumonia and died within a few weeks. During this time, people kept food cold in icehouses. Even when Cullen made his demo in 1748, he didn’t follow it up. His experiment produced ice. But records on the history of the refrigerator show he never quite realized what it could mean. Around 1805, the American inventor Oliver Evans designed a refrigeration apparatus, but he didn’t build one. But the idea for the refrigerator caught on. The inventor Robert Perkins would improve on Evans’ creation and have his invention patented in 1834. But neither Perkins nor Evans’ machine were called a refrigerator. The word was first used by Thomas Moore in 1800. However his design was for a cedar tub. The tub was covered with rabbit fur and ice. While Moore called it a refrigerator, today it is more like an icebox. Modern History of the Refrigerator Perkins’ design made use of vapor compression, the first to do so. Its appearance is also more similar to modern refrigerators than the other inventions before. But the first home refrigerator was made by General Electric in 1911. The fridge was composed of wood. It was designed by Marcel Audiffen, a French physics teacher. In 1895 and 1908 he got the patents for the fridge...
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