Who Invented the Atomic Bomb?

Who Invented the Atomic Bomb?...

The history of the atomic bomb began with the Manhattan Project. It was tasked to create the bomb beginning in 1939. The scientists who invented the bomb included Robert Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, Rudolf Peierls and many others. The Origin of the Manhattan Project Its roots lay in a letter Albert Einstein sent to President Franklin Roosevelt. On August 2, 1939, Einstein sent a letter to the US President stating the Germans were trying to enrich uranium 235. This process would allow them to build an atomic bomb. This led to Roosevelt’s decision to create the Manhattan Project. To purify the uranium, a research center was set up in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Some of the scientists that figured in this process were Harold Urey and Ernest Lawrence. Testing and the Aftermath Throughout the development and history of the atomic bomb, over $2 billion was spent on the project. Besides Oppenheimer, Peleris and Teller, other scientists participated. These included David Bohm, Leo Szilard, Neils Bohr and Eugene Wigner. Otto Frisch, Felix Bloch, Emilio Segre, James Franck, Klaus Fuchs and Enrico Fermi also took part in the Manhattan Project. The headquarters was in Los Alamos. The project spanned the whole of World War II. The testing day came on July 16, 1945. The gadget (as it was known) was detonated at exactly 5:29, July 16, 1945. The location was the Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico. The bright light became orange and then turned into a reddish color. Moving upwards at 360 ft per second, the mushroom cloud appeared at 30,000 feet. Records on the history of the atomic bomb show radioactive glass was created on the ground were it exploded. The explosion was so bright a blind person saw the flash...
Who Invented the Television?

Who Invented the Television?...

The history of television is complex and no single person can claim to be its inventor. However the following will show an outline of its development and the individuals responsible for it. Early History Its origins can be traced back to 1873 when Willoughby Smith discovered photoconductivity in selenium, vital to TV’s development. Records show that in 1884, a German named Nipkow had gotten a patent for an electromechanical TV in 1884. Nipkow never worked on the TV though, but he designed the spinning disk. This spinning disk is regarded as the first TV image rasterizer. The word television itself was invented by Constantin Perskyi at the International Electricity Congress at the International World Fair (Paris, August 25, 1900). The history of television shows that the prototypes were first used to relay simple sstill images. Electronic TV The next stage in TV’s development took place in 1911. An engineer named Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton described how cathode ray tubes could be used to relay electric vision for both receiving and transmission. The use of a transmitter was also considered for the first time. During the 1920s, several scientists started working on electronic transmission tubes. On September 7, 1927, Philo Farnsworth used a camera tube and transmitted an image (a single line) in his lab. A year later he was giving public demonstrations and in 1929 transmitted images of people. The history of television shows that in 1934 the electronic TV had been invented. The 1930s and 40s Britain’s Isaac Shoenberg developed a device for transmitting 405 line images in 1936. The 625 line was first used in the Soviet Union in 1944. It became widely used in the USSR and was adapted throughout Europe. As innovations continued, the number of...
Who Invented the Potato Clock?

Who Invented the Potato Clock?...

In these environmentally-conscious times, everyone’s been looking towards developing alternative sources of energy, from solar power to geothermal energy. On a much smaller scale, it has been proven that energy can also be drawn from the most unlikely of sources: a potato. The Potato Clock was invented in 1983 by one William A. Borst. The impetus for this unassuming but clever gadget started rather innocently, when Borst was assisting his stepdaughter on a science project. He was reminded of a physics demonstration that he had witnessed in high school, in which a battery was created by affixing 2 metal prods into a potato. Borst thought of replicating that experiment, but with the addition of an electric-powered device which could run on the small charge of energy that the potato battery would generate. Borst settled on a digital clock, but he realized that it would require a greater amount of energy than just one potato battery can generate in order to function. So to amplify the charge to be delivered to the clock, he decided to connect 2 potatoes in sequence. The move proved conclusive, and he was indeed able to power a digital clock by drawing electricity from a couple of potatoes. A further experiment was then made to find out how long the potato-powered clock would operate. The time-duration test was conducted in an auto-repair shop that Borst had co-owned at the time. A customer happened to walk into the shop and asked about the curious device that was being tested. As it turns out, the customer was working for the local newspaper, which would then run an article about Borst’s invention. Eventually, word about the potato clock would spread, and what started as a modest school project...
Who Invented the Wheelbarrow?

Who Invented the Wheelbarrow?...

The history of the wheelbarrow began in Greece circa 406 BC. However there are no records that indicate who actually made it. The Wheelbarrow in Ancient Civilizations The Greeks didn’t stay what they used the device for. In fact there is nothing that indicates it was utilized for farming. But most scholars assume that the device was employed in construction sites. The vehicle was very likely used to transport certain loads to the site. There is evidence of a one wheeled vehicle in 4th century AD Rome. However the ongoing research suggests that the wheelbarrow may have been used there too. The history of the wheelbarrow doesn’t provide information on its use in the Byzantine Empire. From the fall of Rome to the 11th century, use of the wheelbarrow stopped. There are no records indicating when or why this happened. It is possible that as Europe was plunged into chaos following Rome’s collapse, the vehicle was simply forgotten. The Wheelbarrow in Medieval Times Records show that the wheelbarrows reappeared around 1170 to 1250. Almost all of them had the same design. The wheel was set at the front area. This arrangement is still used in virtually all wheelbarrows. Research into the vehicle’s history is difficult. The main reason is the language. Countries used different terms to describe it. This makes it hard to determine if the vehicle referred to is a wheelbarrow or not. But studies on the history of the wheelbarrow has shed some light on the matter. There are at least four instances where the wheelbarrow was mentioned, from 1172 to 1222. But the terms used were different. The first time that the wheelbarrow was referred to dates from 1222. This was an English document involving the...
Who Invented Silly Putty?

Who Invented Silly Putty?...

Silly Putty (also known as Nutty Putty) is a trademark owned by Crayola for silicone polymers. The products are sold today in grocery stores and shopping malls as toys for children. Additionally, silicone polymers have important scientific and medical uses. Most physical therapists use the polymers for the treatments of hand injuries. Aside from this, the materials are also helpful for reducing stress level. Above all, these were used to secure the things inside the spaceship of Apollo astronauts when they reached zero-gravity areas in the orbit. To know more about the product, let us start with the person who was credited for Silly Putty. History of the Trademark Who invented Silly Putty? Some reports said that it was Dow Corning owner Earl Warrick developed silicone polymers but Crayola believed that Scottish inventor James Wright invented the material in 1943. Both Warrick and Wright realized that when silicone oil and boric acid were combined, these would produce certain chemical reaction. The reaction would produce a bouncy and gooey material that has numerous unique characteristics or properties. It could be stretched out like the regular rubber and it could bounce like a ball when it was dropped. In addition, the researchers found that the material has a high melting temperature. To make money out of the invention, Wright sent samples of silicone polymers to various companies in the world. In 1949, toy store owner Ruth Fallgatter marketed the material in a clear package for $2. The item was the best-selling item in the store next to Crayola crayons. Fallgatter’s marketing consultant Peter Hodgson saw the potential of the product. He marketed the putty in plastic eggs and he offered the toys to the students of Yale University for $1. He...
Who Invented Nanotechnology?

Who Invented Nanotechnology?...

When analyzing the facts about nanotechnology, it will become apparent that not one person was responsible for inventing it. The word itself was coined by Professor Norio Taniguchi in 1974. The idea of manipulating atoms and molecules was first brought up by Richard Feynman in 1959. Origin of Nanotechnology Feynman gave his lecture on December 29, 1959 at the American Physical Meeting Society. He discussed a procedure wherein molecules and atoms could be harnessed using specially designed instruments. The word nanotechnology had not been invented yet, but his proposition is an exact description of the science. More facts about nanotechnology surfaced with Professor Taniguchi’s work. In his 1974 paper, the professor described the process as consolidation or separation of atoms or molecules. Dr. K Eric Drexler popularized the word with his books (Engine of Creation and Nanosystems). The Engines of Creation came out in 1986 and was the first book ever on the subject. The 1980s Nanotechnology began taking off in the 1980s, mainly due to the emergence of cluster science and the creation of the STM (scanning tunneling microscope). This was followed by the discovery and manipulation of fullerenes in the mid 80s. Its progression was also helped by the development of semiconductor nanocrystals. This resulted in an increase of metal oxide nanoparticles. A study of the facts about nanotechnology show quantum dots also grew. 1987 saw the first protein engineered and a symposium on the subject was held. By the following year, courses on nanotechnology were being offered in universities. In 1991, the atomic force microscope was created. The 1990s also saw increased use and manipulation of carbon nanotubes. Potential Benefits Although still in its infancy, the potential benefits of nanotechnology have been cited by scientists. Nanotechnology...
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