Who Invented the Clock?

Who Invented the Clock?

Who invented the clock? Introduction Many types of clocks are in use today. Each kind has its own inventor and history. But from the beginning, men have used all kinds of objects and materials to be able to keep time. Here are the different types of clocks used and how they were made. Astronomical Calendars When men looked up at the sky, they noticed that the sun, moon, stars and other heavenly bodies moved in cycles. This allowed them to tell time. The Sumerians used a solar calendar with 30-day long months and 12 periods in each day. The famous Stonehenge in Britain was an ancient timekeeping monument. It marked various astronomical and seasonal events like eclipses, equinoxes, etc. The Egyptians first used a lunar calendar, just as the Chinese did. Later the Egyptians invented a 365-day solar year based on when the Dog Star Sirius would rise near the sun. The Mayans had a very accurate calendar too. They used not only the sun and moon, but also the planet Venus. Sun and Water Clocks Ancient peoples had other ways to tell time. The Egyptians invented the obelisk. Its shadow was used to mark the hours of the day. This was a type of sundial. Another kind of clock was the water clock. Different models of water clocks existed. The oldest was a vessel with a hole at the bottom. The vessel was filled with water and it would pour out at a constant rate. The Chinese made use of water clocks to time the fertility of the emperor’s consort. The Pendulum Clock The first accurate, modern clock was the pendulum clock. It was invented in 1656 by a Dutch scientist, Christian Huygens. When he first built the...
Who Invented the Digital Camera?

Who Invented the Digital Camera?...

A digital camera is a type of camera that takes photographs or videos with the use of an electronic image sensor. This device has the capacity to display photographs on the screen several seconds after the image has been recorded. Other brands of the cameras can edit the layout, color as well as the entire appearance of the picture. Because of the popularity and wide use of the device, it is incorporated in other devices like mobile phones and PDAs. To learn about the history of the device, it is best to start with the person behind the development of the digital camera. History Who invented the digital camera? This device was first created by Eastman Kodak engineer Steven Sasson in 1975. The camera used a solid state CCD image sensor chips manufactured by Fairchild Semiconductor. The device weighed 3.6 kilograms and it took above 20 seconds to capture an image. This camera was developed as a prototype and it is not intended for mass production. However, this device has the capacity to record black and white pictures. Additionally, the first digital camera has a resolution of 10,000 pixels or 0.01 megapixels. The first digital camera that was introduced to the public is the Fuji DS-1P, which was launched in 1988. The device has a 16 MB internal memory card and it has a battery. The device was not launched in Japan as well as in the United States. The next digital camera that was commercially available is the 1990 Dycam Model 1. It has a CCD image sensor and it can be connected to a computer or a laptop to transfer and store data. Eastman Kodak launched the first professional digital camera named as the Kodak DCS-100 in...
Who Invented the Steam Engine?

Who Invented the Steam Engine?...

The history of steam engines points to Thomas Savery (1650-1715) as its inventor. He created the engine in 1698 but the basic principles were already known years before. The Evolution of the Steam Engine In the first century AD, Hero of Alexandria had detailed the fundamental principles of the steam engine. The steam turbines that Taqi al Din and Giovanni Branca made (in 1551 and 1629) were mainly for assessing the properties of steam. They were not actually put to any practical use. Savery’s invention in 1698 was the first practical application of steam. It was a water pump and used in some pumping stations. The history of steam engines asserts that the early models sometimes failed to work. In 1712, Thomas Newcomen invented the atmospheric engine. Newcomen’s design was actually an improvement over Savery’s machine. It was mostly used for water pumping too, but it could also be used for draining. James Watt’s Engine While Newcomen’s work help usher in the Industrial Age, it was James Watt’s innovations that helped make steam engine more practical. His pumping engine needed 78% less coal than Newcomen’s device. Watt also included a rotary motion. This allowed the device to be used for moving factory equipment. This meant factories no longer had to be built near rivers or water sources. Watt’s invention was still an atmospheric engine. This meant power was produced by the vacuum from the condensed steam. The history of steam engines changed with Richard Trevithick’s new engines. Trevithick’s Engines Trevithick’s engines utilized high pressure. Compared with Watt’s engine, this was much more powerful. Its small size also made it ideal for usage in transport. The engine came to be recognized as a power source. In 1801 Trevithick created the...
Who Invented the Toaster?

Who Invented the Toaster?...

The toaster is a very reliable kitchen appliance used for toasting various kinds of bread. With the help of this electric device, you can easily enjoy nice tasting bread anytime you want. Today, toasters are classified into three major varieties, namely conveyors, ovens and pop-up toasters. It is good to find out more about this useful electric appliance including who invented the toaster. The Invention of the Toaster Who invented the toaster? George Schneider, who once worked for the American Electrical Heater Co. in Detroit, was the very first to apply for an electronic toaster patent application in the United States, which happened some time around 1893 to 1900. In 1909, General Electric applied a patent for its GE model D-12, which became the very first successful commercial electronic toaster. Its design was credited to a technician named Frank Shailor. Additional Facts and Other Important Information In 1913, a major advancement in electronic toasters took place when American inventor Lloyd Groff Copeman applied a number of patents for his creation. His invention allowed both sides of a bread to toast even without touching it. Aside from this breakthrough, he was also credited for inventing the very first ice cube tray made from rubber as well as the electric stove. After that, toasters received another improvement when the semi-automatic variant was launched. This product automatically turned off once the bread toasted. In 1921, American inventor Charles Strite came up with the very first automatic pop-up toaster. Unlike earlier models, the toasted bread ejects automatically. After that, the Waters Genter Co. launched the Model 1-A-1 Toastmaster in 1925, which toasted both sides of the bread simultaneously. By 1946, ultramodern chrome designs were launched. In 1950, product models like the T-50, T-35...
Who Invented Nintendo?

Who Invented Nintendo?

The history of Nintendo began in 1889. Its founder was Fusajiro Yamauchi. The company actually started by making gaming cards, but eventually made its mark in the electronic gaming industry. 1950s to the 1960s The card game Nintendo Koppai (as it was known then) was called Hanafuda. It would become a hit. However the company realized the limits of the playing card game business and decided to expand. From the 1950s to the early 1970s, the company tried other businesses besides selling cards. These included peddling rice, running a taxi and hotels. All these ventures failed and by the 1960s sales of playing cards went down. The Mid 1970s and 1980s The turning point in the history of Nintendo came when they ventured into the toy industry. Initially they weren’t successful but in 1974 obtained the right to sell the Odyssey video game console. Three years later, Nintendo started making its own small consoles. The company would achieve success when they moved into the emerging video arcade industry. The first game they released was EVR Race. However it was the 1981 game Donkey Kong that established Nintendo as a force to be reckoned with. Nintendo followed this up not just with more games but with other consoles and devices, such as the Game and Watch. The Family Computer The success of Game and Watch would be eclipsed by the Family Computer, which would change the history of Nintendo. The home video game console was released in America in 1985 as the Nintendo Entertainment System. This was followed by the Super FamiCom and the Game Boy in 1989. The Super FamiCom (or SNES) sold nearly 50 million units. For a while its biggest rival was the Sega Mega Drive (or...
Who Invented Carbon Nanotubes?

Who Invented Carbon Nanotubes?...

The history of carbon nanotubes began in 1952 when two Russian scientists, L. V. Radushkevich and V. M. Lukyanovich published pictures of carbon diameter tubes. They measured 50 nanometers. Discoveries about the Carbon Nanotubes The findings of the Russian scientists were not given much publicity. A lot of Western scientists did not even know about it because it was the period of the Cold War. In fact some researchers assert that carbon nanotubes may have been invented prior to 1952, but there’s no way to prove this yet. Other scientists began making observations about carbon nanotubes. In 1976, Endo, Koyama and Oberlin showed images of carbon fibers with nanometer dimensions. In the history of carbon nanotubes, the three scientists were also the first to show images of a nanotube with a solitary graphene wall. Six years later, John Abrahamson displayed more proof for carbon nanotubes. His paper classified carbon nanotubes as fibers which were produced during an arc discharge. Findings in the 1980s and 2000s In 1981, Russian scientists published more findings. The carbon multi layer tubular crystals (as it was known then) were made by rolling graphene layers into cylindrical shapes. In 1987, Howard Tennet was given a patent for his cylindrical discrete carbon fibrils. This was followed in 1991 by Sumio Lijima’s unearthing of multi walled carbon nanotubes in arc burned graphite rods. In fact some accounts of the history of carbon nanotubes mistakenly point to Lijima as the discoverer of carbon nanotubes. The findings of Lijima led to more research and discovery. In 1995, Swiss scientists showed the electron emission property of the nanotubes. Two years later the carbon nanotube signal electron transistors were demonstrated at Berkeley. The following year demos of the carbon nanotube field...
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