Who Invented the Personal Computer?

Who Invented the Personal Computer?...

When you study the history of the personal computer, the records will show that Ed Roberts was the first to use the term. He used it to describe his invention, the Altiair 8800 which appeared in 1975. However some experts believe the Kenback- 1 (made in 1971) was the first PC although the term was not used to describe it. The Earliest Computers Before the term personal computer was used, machines that could be operated by a single individual were called microcomputers. These machines became widespread when the microprocessor was invented in the 1970s. But as far back as 1968, STI researcher Douglas Englebart (inventor of the mouse) had demonstrated the use of a mouse, video and typing on computers. In the history of the personal computer, this event has come to be known as the mother of all demos. But during the 70s, computers were available only in electronic shops. Most of them made use of switches and panels. The keyboards and disks had to be purchased separately. The Micral is regarded as the first non assembly, commercially available computer. It used the Intel 8008 processor. It came out in 1973. The Apple II and IBM PCs In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak produced the Apple Computer. A hit, they followed it up with the Apple II. Its success was the turning point in the history of the personal computer. Computers were now sold as complete packages. Software for business and education also started coming out. Word processors, spreadsheets and games were also beginning to appear. Apple’s success inspired IBM to do the same thing. The company went on to make computers using an open bus and open architecture system. This design would ensure that software developers...
Who Invented the First Apple Computer?

Who Invented the First Apple Computer?...

The first Apple computer was conceived by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak and sold on July 1976. It consisted of a motherboard, memory and CPU. The history of Apple computer shows the company was incorporated a few months after the Apple I went on sale. Early History The Apple I sold very well and inspired Wozniak and Jobs to develop the Apple II. The Apple II came with a 5 ¼ floppy drive and employed color and graphics. The machine was even more successful than the Apple I. The Apple II was bought by educators and hobbyists. Soon the Apple II became a mainstay in schools where computers were being taught. Another welcome feature of the Apple II was its open architecture. This design allowed third party vendors to create applications for the computer. The history of Apple computer shows that by 1978, the machine had also become a mainstay in business offices. This was due to the appearance of various third party business applications on the Apple II. The Lisa and the Macintosh The Apple II was followed by the Apple III which was a commercial failure. The computer improved very little from its predecessor. It also had a number of technical glitches that affected its performance. The company was also unable to make gains on the business front. It would lose its business market share to IBM. In response, Steve Jobs went to Pao Alto Research Laboratory, run by Xerox. There he was able to recruit its most brilliant researchers. It was this team of researchers who designed the GUI (graphical user interfaced), pull down menus and the use of a mouse. This would be an important point in the history of Apple computer. In 1983, the...
Who Invented the Clock?

Who Invented the Clock?

Who invented the clock? Introduction Many types of clocks are in use today. Each kind has its own inventor and history. But from the beginning, men have used all kinds of objects and materials to be able to keep time. Here are the different types of clocks used and how they were made. Astronomical Calendars When men looked up at the sky, they noticed that the sun, moon, stars and other heavenly bodies moved in cycles. This allowed them to tell time. The Sumerians used a solar calendar with 30-day long months and 12 periods in each day. The famous Stonehenge in Britain was an ancient timekeeping monument. It marked various astronomical and seasonal events like eclipses, equinoxes, etc. The Egyptians first used a lunar calendar, just as the Chinese did. Later the Egyptians invented a 365-day solar year based on when the Dog Star Sirius would rise near the sun. The Mayans had a very accurate calendar too. They used not only the sun and moon, but also the planet Venus. Sun and Water Clocks Ancient peoples had other ways to tell time. The Egyptians invented the obelisk. Its shadow was used to mark the hours of the day. This was a type of sundial. Another kind of clock was the water clock. Different models of water clocks existed. The oldest was a vessel with a hole at the bottom. The vessel was filled with water and it would pour out at a constant rate. The Chinese made use of water clocks to time the fertility of the emperor’s consort. The Pendulum Clock The first accurate, modern clock was the pendulum clock. It was invented in 1656 by a Dutch scientist, Christian Huygens. When he first built the...
Who Invented the Steam Engine?

Who Invented the Steam Engine?...

The history of steam engines points to Thomas Savery (1650-1715) as its inventor. He created the engine in 1698 but the basic principles were already known years before. The Evolution of the Steam Engine In the first century AD, Hero of Alexandria had detailed the fundamental principles of the steam engine. The steam turbines that Taqi al Din and Giovanni Branca made (in 1551 and 1629) were mainly for assessing the properties of steam. They were not actually put to any practical use. Savery’s invention in 1698 was the first practical application of steam. It was a water pump and used in some pumping stations. The history of steam engines asserts that the early models sometimes failed to work. In 1712, Thomas Newcomen invented the atmospheric engine. Newcomen’s design was actually an improvement over Savery’s machine. It was mostly used for water pumping too, but it could also be used for draining. James Watt’s Engine While Newcomen’s work help usher in the Industrial Age, it was James Watt’s innovations that helped make steam engine more practical. His pumping engine needed 78% less coal than Newcomen’s device. Watt also included a rotary motion. This allowed the device to be used for moving factory equipment. This meant factories no longer had to be built near rivers or water sources. Watt’s invention was still an atmospheric engine. This meant power was produced by the vacuum from the condensed steam. The history of steam engines changed with Richard Trevithick’s new engines. Trevithick’s Engines Trevithick’s engines utilized high pressure. Compared with Watt’s engine, this was much more powerful. Its small size also made it ideal for usage in transport. The engine came to be recognized as a power source. In 1801 Trevithick created the...
Who Invented the Toaster?

Who Invented the Toaster?...

The toaster is a very reliable kitchen appliance used for toasting various kinds of bread. With the help of this electric device, you can easily enjoy nice tasting bread anytime you want. Today, toasters are classified into three major varieties, namely conveyors, ovens and pop-up toasters. It is good to find out more about this useful electric appliance including who invented the toaster. The Invention of the Toaster Who invented the toaster? George Schneider, who once worked for the American Electrical Heater Co. in Detroit, was the very first to apply for an electronic toaster patent application in the United States, which happened some time around 1893 to 1900. In 1909, General Electric applied a patent for its GE model D-12, which became the very first successful commercial electronic toaster. Its design was credited to a technician named Frank Shailor. Additional Facts and Other Important Information In 1913, a major advancement in electronic toasters took place when American inventor Lloyd Groff Copeman applied a number of patents for his creation. His invention allowed both sides of a bread to toast even without touching it. Aside from this breakthrough, he was also credited for inventing the very first ice cube tray made from rubber as well as the electric stove. After that, toasters received another improvement when the semi-automatic variant was launched. This product automatically turned off once the bread toasted. In 1921, American inventor Charles Strite came up with the very first automatic pop-up toaster. Unlike earlier models, the toasted bread ejects automatically. After that, the Waters Genter Co. launched the Model 1-A-1 Toastmaster in 1925, which toasted both sides of the bread simultaneously. By 1946, ultramodern chrome designs were launched. In 1950, product models like the T-50, T-35...
Who Invented Carbon Nanotubes?

Who Invented Carbon Nanotubes?...

The history of carbon nanotubes began in 1952 when two Russian scientists, L. V. Radushkevich and V. M. Lukyanovich published pictures of carbon diameter tubes. They measured 50 nanometers. Discoveries about the Carbon Nanotubes The findings of the Russian scientists were not given much publicity. A lot of Western scientists did not even know about it because it was the period of the Cold War. In fact some researchers assert that carbon nanotubes may have been invented prior to 1952, but there’s no way to prove this yet. Other scientists began making observations about carbon nanotubes. In 1976, Endo, Koyama and Oberlin showed images of carbon fibers with nanometer dimensions. In the history of carbon nanotubes, the three scientists were also the first to show images of a nanotube with a solitary graphene wall. Six years later, John Abrahamson displayed more proof for carbon nanotubes. His paper classified carbon nanotubes as fibers which were produced during an arc discharge. Findings in the 1980s and 2000s In 1981, Russian scientists published more findings. The carbon multi layer tubular crystals (as it was known then) were made by rolling graphene layers into cylindrical shapes. In 1987, Howard Tennet was given a patent for his cylindrical discrete carbon fibrils. This was followed in 1991 by Sumio Lijima’s unearthing of multi walled carbon nanotubes in arc burned graphite rods. In fact some accounts of the history of carbon nanotubes mistakenly point to Lijima as the discoverer of carbon nanotubes. The findings of Lijima led to more research and discovery. In 1995, Swiss scientists showed the electron emission property of the nanotubes. Two years later the carbon nanotube signal electron transistors were demonstrated at Berkeley. The following year demos of the carbon nanotube field...
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