Who Invented DNA Fingerprinting?

Who Invented DNA Fingerprinting?...

DNA fingerprinting (also known as DNA typing) is a special technique used to identify individuals based on their DNA profiles. One of the important uses of this technique is to provide reliable and credible evidence in courts. Other uses of the technique are for identifying one’s paternity and maternity as well as for personal identification. In several countries, the national government has DNA databases, which contain the DNA structures of citizens. To know more about this technique, let us take a look at the history of DNA fingerprinting. History of DNA Profiling Who invented DNA fingerprinting? DNA profiling was invented by scientist Sir Alec Jeffreys in his laboratory at the University of Leicester in Great Britain in 1985. The reason behind the invention of the technique is to identify which parts of the DNA sequences are different from an individual to another. However, at this time, the technologies that they can use to determine the sequences were limited. In this regard, Jeffreys only found small differences in the sequence when in fact; there are numerous variable sequences in the DNA. Jeffreys continued searching for techniques that can be used to identify all the varying sequences named as minisatellites. In order to succeed, he created a special probe that would be used to check if the minisatellites would react with a myoglobin gene. To do the experiment, he got DNA samples from his parents. On September 10, 1984, Jeffreys saw an inheritance pattern between the samples. He found out that DNA fingerprinting is a highly efficient technique that can be used to identify one’s paternity as well as maternity. He reported his findings in lectures and reports. He also published research at the Nature magazine about the technique. Two weeks...
Who Invented Genetic Engineering?

Who Invented Genetic Engineering?...

The history of genetic engineering began in the early 1900s with the works of the Austrian monk and scientist Gregor Mendel. Mendel’s work led to the establishment of genetics as a scientific field. From this genetic engineering would appear through the works of other scientists. The 1940s to 1950s Of course, plant breeders long ago learned how to alter the seeds. But in 1944, Oswald Avery Colin McLeod and Maclyn McCarty discovered that DNA was the carrier of genetic information. This discovery led to intense studies on DNA and its properties. The breakthrough came in 1953 when Watson and Crick decoded the structure of the DNA, vital to the history of genetic engineering. During the 1960s, Ian Wilmut started developing the techniques for cloning animals using cells of other mammals. It was in 1968 that the Swiss microbiologist Werner Arber discovered restriction enzyme. The following year type II restriction enzymes were uncovered by American biologist Hamilton Smith. This discovery, along with the works of Daniel Nathan, broke new ground in DNA research. The 1970s The 1970s saw an increase in research into genetic engineering. Most of the experiments were on bacteria and other microorganisms. The research was focused on the plasmids, DNA rings discovered in bacteria. It was during this decade that gene isolation and alteration techniques were developed in the US. These discoveries were vital in the history of genetic engineering. It allowed scientists to insert genes into other plants or cells. This could also be done on animals. In effect this changed the heredity of the organism. Further research showed that type I and II enzymes were pivotal in genetic research. In 1973, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen invented a process for slicing DNA and joining it...
Who Invented Charcoal Briquettes?

Who Invented Charcoal Briquettes?...

The history of charcoal briquettes began when Ellsworth B.A. Zwoyer of Pennsylvania applied for a patent in 1897. But it was Henry Ford who helped popularized its use in the 1920s. Early History It’s not clear as to how Zwoyer came upon the idea of a briquette. But by the end of World War I, the Zwoyer Fuel Company had begun construction of charcoal briquette plants around the US. One of the earliest plants was set up in Buffalo, New York. However it was Henry Ford (with some help from Thomas Edison) who put the briquettes to practical use in 1920. His briquettes were constructed from the wood debris and sawdust in his automobile factory. A close look at the history of charcoal briquettes will point out that E.G. Kingsford purchased these briquettes. Kingsford would commercialize the briquette and mass produce them. At first, briquettes were only available from Ford, but the Kingsford Company began manufacturing several of them. It just happened that Kingsford was Ford’s brother in law. Ford agreed to focus on the auto industry. Kingsford would get in the business of selling charcoal. Kingsford Company would change its name to Kingsford Charcoal. Zwoyer and Ford There are reports that Zwoyer was actually selling his charcoal briquettes years before Ford and Kingsford. It would appear that Ford actually stole Zwoyer’s invention, but Zwoyer didn’t take any action. If he did, there are no historical records to prove it. There are some reports that Zwoyer and Ford actually knew each other. So while some accounts of the history of charcoal briquettes point to Ford as the inventor, the patent records shows this is not the case. Ford did popularize it, and the Kingsford Charcoal would produce different types...
Who Invented the Trash Compactor?

Who Invented the Trash Compactor?...

There is no single inventor of the trash compactor. An assessment of the history of the trash compactor shows there are actually several inventions that led to the compactors as we know them today. The Earliest Trash Compactors Most machines use hydraulics to crush compress garbage. Using this definition of a trash compactor, the earliest patent would belong to M. S. Wells. In 1941 he patented an invention to compact oil cans. The mechanisms of his device are similar to the ones used by other trash compactors. This was followed by other inventions. The succeeding ones would improve or add features to the basic compactor. One well known patent is for the Kitchen Compactor. This apparatus was designed by one Mr. Boyd. A study of the history of the trash compactor will reveal that it adheres to the basic principles of trash compactors. In his application, Mr. Boyd declared the machine would use hydraulic pressure to compact trash. This apparatus had to be linked to the water line before it could be used. Boyd’s invention was for houses. That same year Stephen Hopkins came out with a trash compactor for apartments and offices. It did not need a water line to work. Instead it relied on electricity and an internal hydraulic unit. Both Boyd and Hopkins worked for the same company, Compackager Corporation. The Modern Trash Compactors The history of the trash compactor since the 1970s is noted for numerous improvements and innovations. The kitchen compactors today have noise reduction features built in. The pistons used in these devices have also become more powerful and more efficient. In addition, specially designed trash bags have been made for these compactors. Elements like sensors, pre determined pressures and load relievers have...
Who Invented the DVD Player?

Who Invented the DVD Player?...

The history of the DVD player and format is complex. But in simple terms, it emerged because the companies realized that a repeat of the Betamax / VHS rivalry would affect them financially. The first DVD players came out in November 1996 in Japan, developed by Philips. This invention can’t be attributed to one man. There is no clear data that say who exactly invented this device. Therefore, we can only say that Philips created the first DVD player. Other big companies started making their own players shortly after the Philips’ DVD player showed up. The first DVD player in the US was the Sony DVP S7000. It came out in March 1997. How the DVD Format Emerged In 1993, two formats were being touted to replace the CD. One was called the MultiMedia Compact Disc (MMCD). It was supported by Philips and Sony. The other format was the Super Density or SD. This format was backed by Toshiba, Pioneer, JVC and Time Warner. The SD group approached IBM and asked them to use the format for computer data storage. The MMCD group did the same thing. IBM decided to form the Technical Working Group (TWG) to resolve the situation. The group was composed of people from Microsoft, Apple and other major computer companies. In what would prove pivotal in the history of the DVD player, the working group managed to persuade the companies to use a single format. The MMCD and the SD were dropped; the DVD was adopted instead. As work on the DVD began, the companies decided to use technologies from both SD and MMCD formats. One of the technologies applied was EFMPlus, which made the disc more resistant to scratches and smearing. It also allowed...
Who Invented Ink?

Who Invented Ink?

For years man had been carving into clay, stone, or wood to write a record of his life and experiences. But when ink and paper came, it revolutionized writing for all time. They are still in use today. Thus, it’s interesting to know who invented ink. Egyptians or Chinese? Many say it was the Egyptians who invented ink. They also say paper was invented by an Egyptian, because “paper” comes from the word “papyrus” which grew abundantly in the Nile region. But recorded history shows that both writing implements—paper and ink—were invented by Chinese men. The paper inventor was T’sai-Lun and the ink inventor was Tien-Lcheu. Egyptians are often deemed the first users of ink. And that an Egyptian was who invented ink. This is because of the common notion that paper was invented by an Egyptian. True, papyrus was in wide use in Egypt for writing in early times. But they used stylus to carve figures on papyrus instead of black ink. Stylus is a pointed thin rod. Ink was first applied using a brush made of bird’s feather. With this invention, the ink inventor simplified writing and made it so convenient. From Gelatin and Oil He probably got tired of having his hand and fingers denting out marks on wood, stone, or papyrus. In 2607 B.C., Tien, a great thinker being a philosopher, simplified writing. He formulated a dark liquid for marking on stones and papers. He took soot from pine wood then mixed this with oil used in lamps. Tien made gelatin out of the skin of a donkey and musk. He mixed this with the soot and oil. Innovations By 1200 B.C. this black liquid writing implement became popular and other people developed it further...
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