Who Invented the Wheelbarrow?

Who Invented the Wheelbarrow?...

The history of the wheelbarrow began in Greece circa 406 BC. However there are no records that indicate who actually made it. The Wheelbarrow in Ancient Civilizations The Greeks didn’t stay what they used the device for. In fact there is nothing that indicates it was utilized for farming. But most scholars assume that the device was employed in construction sites. The vehicle was very likely used to transport certain loads to the site. There is evidence of a one wheeled vehicle in 4th century AD Rome. However the ongoing research suggests that the wheelbarrow may have been used there too. The history of the wheelbarrow doesn’t provide information on its use in the Byzantine Empire. From the fall of Rome to the 11th century, use of the wheelbarrow stopped. There are no records indicating when or why this happened. It is possible that as Europe was plunged into chaos following Rome’s collapse, the vehicle was simply forgotten. The Wheelbarrow in Medieval Times Records show that the wheelbarrows reappeared around 1170 to 1250. Almost all of them had the same design. The wheel was set at the front area. This arrangement is still used in virtually all wheelbarrows. Research into the vehicle’s history is difficult. The main reason is the language. Countries used different terms to describe it. This makes it hard to determine if the vehicle referred to is a wheelbarrow or not. But studies on the history of the wheelbarrow has shed some light on the matter. There are at least four instances where the wheelbarrow was mentioned, from 1172 to 1222. But the terms used were different. The first time that the wheelbarrow was referred to dates from 1222. This was an English document involving the...
Who Invented the Hubble Telescope?

Who Invented the Hubble Telescope?...

A study of the history of the Hubble telescope will reveal it was named after the scientist Edwin Hubble. The telescope was created by numerous engineers, contractors and scientists at NASA. Work on the space telescope began in 1977. The Hubble was launched on April 25, 1990. Historical Background As early as the 1930s, scientists had been pointing out the benefits of having a telescope in space. It would provide a clear and more comprehensive view of space without being obstructed by the Earth’s atmosphere. As the US space program began in the 1950s the idea for the space telescope began gaining support. The history of the Hubble telescope shows that a number of proposals were sent to Congress. Finally on 1977, Congress approved funding for the program, 15 years after it was first proposed by NASA. Construction and Launch The Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked with the construction of the telescope. The Goddard Space Flight Center was employed to create the ground controls and the equipment to be used. Meanwhile the Perkin Elmer Corporation worked on the mirrors and other contractors were employed to work on the design and other components. It was also at this time that the Hubble name was chosen. Edwin Hubble was the scientist who discovered that the universe was expanding. The history of the Hubble telescope shows that it was supposed to be launched in 1986. But the Challenger disaster occurred and the space program was put on hold. The telescope was finally put into orbit in 1990. When Hubble sent back images, scientists discovered a flaw in the mirror. It was in 1993 that NASA was able to rectify the problem by installing a camera on the mirror. The component was...
Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac?

Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac?...

Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac? The Chinese Zodiac is not a “zodiac” at all since it is neither based on the constellations nor is it a division of the ecliptic. Rather it is a way to observe time in cycles. There are no written record so who invented the Chinese Zodiac. However there are many theories about its origin. One story relates that the ancient Chinese used to keep time by the use of ten “heavenly stems” and twelve “earthly branches.” Different combinations of these stems and branches were used to tell the month, year, day and hour. The calculations were too complicated for average folk, so they used common animals to symbolize the time divisions. The story tells us that the famous Yellow Emperor was the first to use the Chinese Zodiac. He introduced it in the year 2,600 B.C. to begin the Chinese Lunar Year. In ancient China, the emperors were well schooled in astrology. It was believed that one had to know the ways of the stars and the heavens to be a worthy ruler. Legendary Origin of the Chinese Zodiac A couple of legends exist telling why the Chinese Zodiac is ordered the way it is. According to one version, the Buddha summoned all the animals in the world to a meeting. Only the twelve animals – rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog and pig – heeded his call. The Buddha rewarded each animal by making it the ruler of one of the signs. He gave them each year according to their order of arrival. A second version narrates how the beasts argued over who should come first in the yearly cycle. So the Jade Emperor told them to race...
Who Invented the Telescope?

Who Invented the Telescope?...

The telescope is an indispensable tool for studying and observing the heavenly bodies. Without it, we are blind, literally and figuratively, to the workings of the universe beyond our planet. With its importance, it is then an interesting question to ask: who invented the telescope? Asking the question is not that east to answer primarily because unlike other inventions, the telescope was not designed, developed, and made first by a single individual. Rather it was a tool that was in continuous development in its early years. This is when asking who invented the telescope, it is important to discuss the different people who contributed greatly to its creation. First in the list of the people said to be ones who invented the telescope and/or contributed greatly to its development are Jacob Metius, Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen, Dutch reading glass makers. Because of their proficiency and precision in working with glass and producing lenses, each of them were the able to independently produce working refracting telescopes, at most weeks from each other. Refracting telescopes are the earliest form of telescopes, and they rely on a lens in forming an image. Although all of the three can be considered the pioneers of telescopes, Lippershey is widely credited to be the one who invented the telescope since he was the one who was published first. Galileo is another important figure in the history of the telescope. He greatly improved on the design of the three Dutch inventors and made his own telescopes. Using his improved design, he was bale to do historic scientific works which revolutionized scientific thinking forever. Another revolutionary in the field of science, Isaac Newton, can also be considered as one of the people who invented the telescope...
Who Invented the DVD Player?

Who Invented the DVD Player?...

The history of the DVD player and format is complex. But in simple terms, it emerged because the companies realized that a repeat of the Betamax / VHS rivalry would affect them financially. The first DVD players came out in November 1996 in Japan, developed by Philips. This invention can’t be attributed to one man. There is no clear data that say who exactly invented this device. Therefore, we can only say that Philips created the first DVD player. Other big companies started making their own players shortly after the Philips’ DVD player showed up. The first DVD player in the US was the Sony DVP S7000. It came out in March 1997. How the DVD Format Emerged In 1993, two formats were being touted to replace the CD. One was called the MultiMedia Compact Disc (MMCD). It was supported by Philips and Sony. The other format was the Super Density or SD. This format was backed by Toshiba, Pioneer, JVC and Time Warner. The SD group approached IBM and asked them to use the format for computer data storage. The MMCD group did the same thing. IBM decided to form the Technical Working Group (TWG) to resolve the situation. The group was composed of people from Microsoft, Apple and other major computer companies. In what would prove pivotal in the history of the DVD player, the working group managed to persuade the companies to use a single format. The MMCD and the SD were dropped; the DVD was adopted instead. As work on the DVD began, the companies decided to use technologies from both SD and MMCD formats. One of the technologies applied was EFMPlus, which made the disc more resistant to scratches and smearing. It also allowed...
Who Invented Gunpowder?

Who Invented Gunpowder?

There is really no way to tell who invented gunpowder. Like a lot of the ancient inventions we enjoy today, gunpowder came about and was developed gradually through years of testing, use, and perfection. It is interesting that we can trace its origin several centuries into the past. In fact, you can trace the origin of gunpowder into the early days of ancient China. Early Origins Though we don’t know who invented gunpowder exactly we can find many people who have written about it and having it mentioned in their annals. One of the earliest records that mention anything like gunpowder dates back to 142 AD during China’s Han Dynasty. Wei Boyang is the first to have written something that described something like it. He wrote about a certain mixture that is made from three powders that dance and fly violently. Though he did not mention the word gunpowder what he describes is exactly what gunpowder is. We know that gunpowder is an explosive that does contain three foundational ingredients. We can thus surmise that the person who invented gunpowder lived prior to Boyang’s writing. Ge Hong, a scientist who lived during China’s Chin Dynasty around 300 AD wrote down the ingredients of gunpowder. Though having mentioned the ingredients he is not credited as the one who invented gunpowder. Ge Hong even went on to describe the explosion it makes. You mix the appropriate portions of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate to make it. People really began to put gunpowder to use in 700 AD during the T’ang Dynasty. The emperors during this dynasty used gunpowder in order to put up elaborate fireworks displays. But it was only in the year 904 AD when it was put to use...
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