Who Invented the Machine Gun?

Who Invented the Machine Gun?...

The development and history of the machine is complex, but the fact is that Hiram Maxim was the first one to invent and use a machine gun that was self powered. The American inventor showed off his work to the British Army in 1885. He had invented it a year earlier in 1884. The Early Years of the Machine Gun Prior to Maxim’s invention, inventors had begun experimenting with the idea of a continuous rapid fire gun. In 1718, James Puckle came up with the Defence Gun. It consisted of a revolver mounted on a cylinder base. It could fire 60 shots in seven minutes, but the cylinder had to be adjusted manually. Other early designs included the Wilson Agar’s Coffee Mill gun and the Billinghurst–Requa. Both were widely used during the Civil War. These firearms were important in the early history of the machine gun as it gave inventors an idea of what the design had to be like. The Maxim Machine Gun and Others This rapid fire weapon was invented by the American Richard Gatling in 1861. It was first used by the US Army in 1865 and it would also become popular with European armies. Tests by the British Army showed it could fire 600 shots in two minutes. Maxim’s invention (the Maxim Machine Gun) became popular because of its efficiency. It was able to fire 500 rounds every minute. The key was using the recoil to remove the used cartridge and set the new one in place. The history of the machine gun reveals the Maxim gun was bought by the British in 1889. A year later, the Germans, Italians and Russians started ordering Maxim’s machine guns. The success of Hiram Maxim’s weapon inspired others...
Who Invented Electricity?

Who Invented Electricity?...

A study of the history of electricity makes it clear that no single scientist or inventor is responsible for its invention. No single person learned how to use it. Rather it was the culmination of the works of various researchers spanning several years. Earliest Mention of Electrical Use Historical records show that static electricity was already known to the ancient Greeks. In the 6th century BC a Greek named Thales of Miletus discovered that rubbing a fur would make a couple of objects attract one another. According to the legend he experimented with various objects. It was with amber that he was able to produce electrical sparks. Discoveries in the 15th Century The next important chapter in the history of electricity took place at the onset of the Renaissance. The Italian physicist Girolamo Cardano discovered fundamental aspects of electrical power and magnetism. His associate William Gilbert expounded on Cardano’s theories. In 1660 Otto von Guericke invented an electrostatic generator. This was the beginning of a new scientific field of study. This device, along with others that followed, revealed a number of things. The first is that electricity can move across a vacuum. The second is that materials can be divided between insulators and conductors. Finally, it was learned that electricity can be either in positive or negative forms. The 17th to 19th Centuries This period was crucial in the history of electricity. First of all, the capacitor was invented. Just as important was the discovery that static electricity could be changed into a current. It was also around this time that Benjamin Franklin performed his famous experiment with a kite. His experiments about lightning and electricity has been subject to debate, but his contribution to electricity theory cannot be...
Who Invented Atari?

Who Invented Atari?

The history of Atari began in 1972 when the company was founded by Nolan Bushnell and his associate Ted Dabney. Originally the firm was called Syzygy but Bushnell later changed it to Atari. Beginnings and Early Success A year before the company was founded Bushnell hired Al Alcorn to recreate the Odyssey game Tennis for Two. The result was Pong. When the game was released in 1972, it became a huge hit. The Atari Company was founded that same year (the word Atari means go in Japanese. Sometimes it is also translated as to hit the target). The success of Pong (150,000 copies sold) marked a significant turning point in the history of Atari. In 1975, Bushnell sold the company to Warner Communications. It was under Warner that the gaming platform attained success. The Atari 2600 was so popular the sales made up a third of Warner’s profit for the first few years. In 1980 the Atari home video system made nearly half a billion dollars in sales. The 1983 Crash In 1983 sales of video games plummeted in the United States. Atari losses amounted to over $550 million. The following year Warner handed over Atari to Jack Tramiel (former head of Commodore). The Atari St came out and sales peaked at $25 million in 1986. Struggles The next stage in the history of Atari involved its struggles with rival Nintendo. Their rival was winning market share so Atari worked on the Lynx system. It was a handheld console complete with color. The Lynx sold poorly for two reasons. Number one, shortage of components prevented it from being released during the 1989 holiday season. Second it cost twice as much as the Nintendo Game Boy. Tramiel had also stressed...
Who Invented the Radio?

Who Invented the Radio?

While the inventors of other devices and technologies are easy to pinpoint and identify, it is unfortunately not the case for the humble radio. This is because no individual can lay sole claim to the invention of the radio as it is a device that has been developed over time until it reached its final form today. So answering the question “Who invented the radio?” will not be a simple task as it will require a bit of a history lesson since the development of the radio by the numerous individuals involved with it spanned across decades. Each of the scientists and inventors that will be discussed are all commonly referred to as an inventor of the radio because of the breadth and depth of their pioneering work on radio technology. If being widely-regarded will be the main criteria, the answer to the question “Who invented the radio?” will be Gugliemo Marconi. Credited for making the first radio signal across the Atlantic Ocean in 1902, Marconi also showed the practicability of utilizing the capabilities of radio communication. He later won the Nobel Prize for his work on radio technology. If, on the other hand, being first is the main criteria, then the name of Sir Oliver Lodge will be the answer to the question “Who invented the radio?” This is because Lodge has the distinction for being the first human to send a radio signal using his coherer, a radio device which he developed into perfection. Heinrich Hertz can also be another name that can be supplied to answer the question “Who invented the radio?” This is because of his important work on radio, which proved the existence of electromagnetic waves, made possible the construction of systems that transmit...
Who Invented the Very First Camera?

Who Invented the Very First Camera?...

The history of the camera is long and complex. Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre invented the first photographic device in 1836. George Eastman popularized photographic film in 1885. However, camera like devices appeared years earlier. The Camera Obscura The first known instance of people being aware of photography theory was in 5th century China. A Chinese named Mo Ti observed the following effect. When light rays of an illuminated matter are reflected and go through a dark area, it will produce an inverted but otherwise identical copy. In 1000 AD, Alhazen created the pinhole camera or camera obscura. The history of the camera indicates that the next important discovery was made in 1727. That was when Johann Schulze learned silver nitrate became dim when it was exposed to light. Niepce’s Image Then in 1827, Frenchman Joseph Niepce managed to make a photographic image. He used the camera obscura for this task. Although the device had been around for a while, it was only used for illustration. Niepce called it the sun prints. But they were the descendants of modern photos as they also used light to produce the image. However it took eight hours to produce the image and it eventually faded. Niepce’s experiment was followed by that of Daguerre. Daguerre played an important role in the history of the camera. The daguerreotype method helped preserved images and took less than half an hour to produce the image. A different type of camera called the calotype was invented by William Talbot in 1840. By the 1880s, the success of Daguerre and Talbot spurned on other inventors. When gelatin dry plate was invented, it greatly helped in the quality of the output. As technology improved, cameras of all shapes and sizes started coming...
Who Invented Genetic Engineering?

Who Invented Genetic Engineering?...

The history of genetic engineering began in the early 1900s with the works of the Austrian monk and scientist Gregor Mendel. Mendel’s work led to the establishment of genetics as a scientific field. From this genetic engineering would appear through the works of other scientists. The 1940s to 1950s Of course, plant breeders long ago learned how to alter the seeds. But in 1944, Oswald Avery Colin McLeod and Maclyn McCarty discovered that DNA was the carrier of genetic information. This discovery led to intense studies on DNA and its properties. The breakthrough came in 1953 when Watson and Crick decoded the structure of the DNA, vital to the history of genetic engineering. During the 1960s, Ian Wilmut started developing the techniques for cloning animals using cells of other mammals. It was in 1968 that the Swiss microbiologist Werner Arber discovered restriction enzyme. The following year type II restriction enzymes were uncovered by American biologist Hamilton Smith. This discovery, along with the works of Daniel Nathan, broke new ground in DNA research. The 1970s The 1970s saw an increase in research into genetic engineering. Most of the experiments were on bacteria and other microorganisms. The research was focused on the plasmids, DNA rings discovered in bacteria. It was during this decade that gene isolation and alteration techniques were developed in the US. These discoveries were vital in the history of genetic engineering. It allowed scientists to insert genes into other plants or cells. This could also be done on animals. In effect this changed the heredity of the organism. Further research showed that type I and II enzymes were pivotal in genetic research. In 1973, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen invented a process for slicing DNA and joining it...
Page 1 of 1012345...10...Last »