Who Invented the Machine Gun?

Who Invented the Machine Gun?...

The development and history of the machine is complex, but the fact is that Hiram Maxim was the first one to invent and use a machine gun that was self powered. The American inventor showed off his work to the British Army in 1885. He had invented it a year earlier in 1884. The Early Years of the Machine Gun Prior to Maxim’s invention, inventors had begun experimenting with the idea of a continuous rapid fire gun. In 1718, James Puckle came up with the Defence Gun. It consisted of a revolver mounted on a cylinder base. It could fire 60 shots in seven minutes, but the cylinder had to be adjusted manually. Other early designs included the Wilson Agar’s Coffee Mill gun and the Billinghurst–Requa. Both were widely used during the Civil War. These firearms were important in the early history of the machine gun as it gave inventors an idea of what the design had to be like. The Maxim Machine Gun and Others This rapid fire weapon was invented by the American Richard Gatling in 1861. It was first used by the US Army in 1865 and it would also become popular with European armies. Tests by the British Army showed it could fire 600 shots in two minutes. Maxim’s invention (the Maxim Machine Gun) became popular because of its efficiency. It was able to fire 500 rounds every minute. The key was using the recoil to remove the used cartridge and set the new one in place. The history of the machine gun reveals the Maxim gun was bought by the British in 1889. A year later, the Germans, Italians and Russians started ordering Maxim’s machine guns. The success of Hiram Maxim’s weapon inspired others...
Who Invented the White Board?

Who Invented the White Board?...

The history of whiteboards began in the mid 1960s. It’s still a mystery as to who actually invented it. Some think that it began in China, but there is no real way to be sure. The first company to mass produce porcelain on steel write on / wipe off whiteboard (called LCS) was Claridge Products. Whiteboards and Chalkboards The whiteboards evolved from the chalkboards (or blackboards). Although chalkboards were popular, some teachers and students were allergic to chalk. When material was wiped off from the boards, the dust would fly off. By the 1960s, early versions of the whiteboard began to appear. However the chalkboards were still popular. It was in the late 1980s that reports of chalk allergies became widely known, changing the history of whiteboards forever. The Evolution of the Whiteboard The early ones that came out were comprised of melamine. Not only was it costly, but excessive use left faint images of the material on it. Cleaning was also difficult. The enamel on steel write on / wipe off magnetic whiteboard was produced by Magiboards in Britain. In the United States, inventor Michael Boone helped popularized the Boone Board dry erase board. Improvements As the whiteboard became more popular, innovations and improvements from various companies emerged. Most important of these innovations was reducing the glossiness of the surface. This gloss resulted in glares which was distracting for students. The history of whiteboards shows that by the late 2000s, high quality paint coating was being used. This resulted in a very clear surface that was easy to write on. Whiteboard Surfaces Most whiteboards use any of the following types for their materials: melamine, painted steel, magnetic glass or porcelain. Melamine is the least costly and is also...
Who Invented the X Ray?

Who Invented the X Ray?

X Ray is a kind of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation that has shorter wavelength as compared to the ultraviolet ray. This radiation is very useful for crystallography as well as diagnostic radiography. Because of the functions of the electromagnetic radiation, the term is commonly used to refer to an image that can be created using diagnostic radiography. The X Ray is helpful in identifying various medical conditions so it is best that we recognize the people behind the development of this diagnostic technique. History Who invented the X Ray? X Ray was invented by several scientists who examined cathode rays in 1875. The scientists involved in this special project were Wilhelm Rontgen, Philip Lennard and Johann Hittorf. Rontgen is a physics professor in Germany who studied the electromagnetic rays produced by Crookes tubes. He published a paper about his discovery on December 28, 1895. He called the ray as X since it is still unknown. Rontgen received a Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention. Lennard and Hittorf both work with Rontgen in the analysis of cathode rays. Hittorf found that there would be flawed shadows when unexposed photographic plates were placed near the Crookes tubes. However, Hittorf did not investigate the shadows. Additional Information and Other Important Details Other important personalities in the invention of X Ray Ivan Pulyui, Nikola Tesla, Fernando Sanford as well as Thomas Edison. Pulyui was an experimental physics professor at the Prague Polytechnic. Several weeks the publication of Rontgen’s paper on the X ray photograph, Pulyui published a report in journals about high quality X Ray photographs in London as well as in Paris. Tesla created a special and effective single electrode X Ray tube. He published a paper about his invention in...
Who Invented the Very First Camera?

Who Invented the Very First Camera?...

The history of the camera is long and complex. Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre invented the first photographic device in 1836. George Eastman popularized photographic film in 1885. However, camera like devices appeared years earlier. The Camera Obscura The first known instance of people being aware of photography theory was in 5th century China. A Chinese named Mo Ti observed the following effect. When light rays of an illuminated matter are reflected and go through a dark area, it will produce an inverted but otherwise identical copy. In 1000 AD, Alhazen created the pinhole camera or camera obscura. The history of the camera indicates that the next important discovery was made in 1727. That was when Johann Schulze learned silver nitrate became dim when it was exposed to light. Niepce’s Image Then in 1827, Frenchman Joseph Niepce managed to make a photographic image. He used the camera obscura for this task. Although the device had been around for a while, it was only used for illustration. Niepce called it the sun prints. But they were the descendants of modern photos as they also used light to produce the image. However it took eight hours to produce the image and it eventually faded. Niepce’s experiment was followed by that of Daguerre. Daguerre played an important role in the history of the camera. The daguerreotype method helped preserved images and took less than half an hour to produce the image. A different type of camera called the calotype was invented by William Talbot in 1840. By the 1880s, the success of Daguerre and Talbot spurned on other inventors. When gelatin dry plate was invented, it greatly helped in the quality of the output. As technology improved, cameras of all shapes and sizes started coming...
Who Invented the Laser?

Who Invented the Laser?

It was in 1960 when Theodore Maiman first showed the optical laser at work. However, the development and history of laser began in the early 1900s with Albert Einstein. Einstein’s Theory Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Basically it is a device that produces light by way of stimulated emission. It was Albert Einstein who postulated the theory of stimulated emissions back in 1917. What Einstein said was this: it’s possible to construct light rays that release energy. By making light rays with the proper frequency, it could be directed at atoms and produce energy. The Maser In 1958, Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow developed the maser (short for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). It wasn’t laser, but its development was crucial in the history of laser. The maser would be used to strengthen radio signals and used in space research as well. The First Lasers Two years later in 1960, Theodore Maiman created the ruby laser. However Gordon Gould was the first person to actually use the word laser. Gould was working with Dr. Townes when he mentioned the word laser in 1957. There are reports he had already invented the optical laser in 1957 but failed to patent it. It wasn’t until 1977 that Gould got his patent for the laser. However it remains that Maiman was the first to show a working laser. In 1960 Ali Javan invented the gas laser. It was the first in the history of laser to actually change electrical energy into laser. This was followed by Robert Hall’s invention of semiconductor laser in 1962. Two years later Kumar Patel developed the carbon dioxide laser, and this was followed by Hal Walker’s invention...
Who Invented the Television?

Who Invented the Television?...

The history of television is complex and no single person can claim to be its inventor. However the following will show an outline of its development and the individuals responsible for it. Early History Its origins can be traced back to 1873 when Willoughby Smith discovered photoconductivity in selenium, vital to TV’s development. Records show that in 1884, a German named Nipkow had gotten a patent for an electromechanical TV in 1884. Nipkow never worked on the TV though, but he designed the spinning disk. This spinning disk is regarded as the first TV image rasterizer. The word television itself was invented by Constantin Perskyi at the International Electricity Congress at the International World Fair (Paris, August 25, 1900). The history of television shows that the prototypes were first used to relay simple sstill images. Electronic TV The next stage in TV’s development took place in 1911. An engineer named Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton described how cathode ray tubes could be used to relay electric vision for both receiving and transmission. The use of a transmitter was also considered for the first time. During the 1920s, several scientists started working on electronic transmission tubes. On September 7, 1927, Philo Farnsworth used a camera tube and transmitted an image (a single line) in his lab. A year later he was giving public demonstrations and in 1929 transmitted images of people. The history of television shows that in 1934 the electronic TV had been invented. The 1930s and 40s Britain’s Isaac Shoenberg developed a device for transmitting 405 line images in 1936. The 625 line was first used in the Soviet Union in 1944. It became widely used in the USSR and was adapted throughout Europe. As innovations continued, the number of...
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