Who Invented the X Ray?

Who Invented the X Ray?

X Ray is a kind of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation that has shorter wavelength as compared to the ultraviolet ray. This radiation is very useful for crystallography as well as diagnostic radiography. Because of the functions of the electromagnetic radiation, the term is commonly used to refer to an image that can be created using diagnostic radiography. The X Ray is helpful in identifying various medical conditions so it is best that we recognize the people behind the development of this diagnostic technique. History Who invented the X Ray? X Ray was invented by several scientists who examined cathode rays in 1875. The scientists involved in this special project were Wilhelm Rontgen, Philip Lennard and Johann Hittorf. Rontgen is a physics professor in Germany who studied the electromagnetic rays produced by Crookes tubes. He published a paper about his discovery on December 28, 1895. He called the ray as X since it is still unknown. Rontgen received a Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention. Lennard and Hittorf both work with Rontgen in the analysis of cathode rays. Hittorf found that there would be flawed shadows when unexposed photographic plates were placed near the Crookes tubes. However, Hittorf did not investigate the shadows. Additional Information and Other Important Details Other important personalities in the invention of X Ray Ivan Pulyui, Nikola Tesla, Fernando Sanford as well as Thomas Edison. Pulyui was an experimental physics professor at the Prague Polytechnic. Several weeks the publication of Rontgen’s paper on the X ray photograph, Pulyui published a report in journals about high quality X Ray photographs in London as well as in Paris. Tesla created a special and effective single electrode X Ray tube. He published a paper about his invention in...
Who Invented the Steam Engine?

Who Invented the Steam Engine?...

The history of steam engines points to Thomas Savery (1650-1715) as its inventor. He created the engine in 1698 but the basic principles were already known years before. The Evolution of the Steam Engine In the first century AD, Hero of Alexandria had detailed the fundamental principles of the steam engine. The steam turbines that Taqi al Din and Giovanni Branca made (in 1551 and 1629) were mainly for assessing the properties of steam. They were not actually put to any practical use. Savery’s invention in 1698 was the first practical application of steam. It was a water pump and used in some pumping stations. The history of steam engines asserts that the early models sometimes failed to work. In 1712, Thomas Newcomen invented the atmospheric engine. Newcomen’s design was actually an improvement over Savery’s machine. It was mostly used for water pumping too, but it could also be used for draining. James Watt’s Engine While Newcomen’s work help usher in the Industrial Age, it was James Watt’s innovations that helped make steam engine more practical. His pumping engine needed 78% less coal than Newcomen’s device. Watt also included a rotary motion. This allowed the device to be used for moving factory equipment. This meant factories no longer had to be built near rivers or water sources. Watt’s invention was still an atmospheric engine. This meant power was produced by the vacuum from the condensed steam. The history of steam engines changed with Richard Trevithick’s new engines. Trevithick’s Engines Trevithick’s engines utilized high pressure. Compared with Watt’s engine, this was much more powerful. Its small size also made it ideal for usage in transport. The engine came to be recognized as a power source. In 1801 Trevithick created the...
Who Invented the Skyscraper?

Who Invented the Skyscraper?...

Defined as a super tall building that is continuously habitable, a skyscraper is a fascinating invention. The Empire State Building in New York City, the Willis Tower in Chicago and the Taipei 101 in Taiwan are just some of the most impressive skyscrapers ever created. Today, these buildings serve as practical solutions to the increasing scarcity of land worldwide. Aside from these things, it is also good to know the history of these tall buildings including who invented the skyscraper. The Invention of the Skyscraper Who invented the skyscraper? After he created the first ever load-bearing structural frame for the Home Insurance Building within the City of Chicago in Illinois in 1885, it is but right to credit architect William Le Baron Jenney as the Father of American skyscrapers. The ten-storey building was the very first skyscraper in the world. In 1891, American architects Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler designed the Wainwright Building in Saint Louis, Missouri. It was also a ten-storey building. However, many people considered it the first true skyscraper rather than the Home Insurance Building because it was constructed with steel frames. Furthermore, it featured vertical bands, which helped emphasized the building’s height even more. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Information After the early skyscrapers were created, fire restrictions and height limits were introduced. In 1895, the American Surety Building was completed in New York. It was the tallest building during that time. In 1930, the Chrysler Building was completed in New York City. In 1931, the Empire State Building, which was comprised of 102 floors, was completed. In 1932, the Boerentoren was constructed in Antwerp, Belgium. It was made up of 26 floors. In 1940, the Torre Piacentini was completed with 31 floors within the...
Who Invented Silly Putty?

Who Invented Silly Putty?...

Silly Putty (also known as Nutty Putty) is a trademark owned by Crayola for silicone polymers. The products are sold today in grocery stores and shopping malls as toys for children. Additionally, silicone polymers have important scientific and medical uses. Most physical therapists use the polymers for the treatments of hand injuries. Aside from this, the materials are also helpful for reducing stress level. Above all, these were used to secure the things inside the spaceship of Apollo astronauts when they reached zero-gravity areas in the orbit. To know more about the product, let us start with the person who was credited for Silly Putty. History of the Trademark Who invented Silly Putty? Some reports said that it was Dow Corning owner Earl Warrick developed silicone polymers but Crayola believed that Scottish inventor James Wright invented the material in 1943. Both Warrick and Wright realized that when silicone oil and boric acid were combined, these would produce certain chemical reaction. The reaction would produce a bouncy and gooey material that has numerous unique characteristics or properties. It could be stretched out like the regular rubber and it could bounce like a ball when it was dropped. In addition, the researchers found that the material has a high melting temperature. To make money out of the invention, Wright sent samples of silicone polymers to various companies in the world. In 1949, toy store owner Ruth Fallgatter marketed the material in a clear package for $2. The item was the best-selling item in the store next to Crayola crayons. Fallgatter’s marketing consultant Peter Hodgson saw the potential of the product. He marketed the putty in plastic eggs and he offered the toys to the students of Yale University for $1. He...
Who Invented Gunpowder?

Who Invented Gunpowder?

There is really no way to tell who invented gunpowder. Like a lot of the ancient inventions we enjoy today, gunpowder came about and was developed gradually through years of testing, use, and perfection. It is interesting that we can trace its origin several centuries into the past. In fact, you can trace the origin of gunpowder into the early days of ancient China. Early Origins Though we don’t know who invented gunpowder exactly we can find many people who have written about it and having it mentioned in their annals. One of the earliest records that mention anything like gunpowder dates back to 142 AD during China’s Han Dynasty. Wei Boyang is the first to have written something that described something like it. He wrote about a certain mixture that is made from three powders that dance and fly violently. Though he did not mention the word gunpowder what he describes is exactly what gunpowder is. We know that gunpowder is an explosive that does contain three foundational ingredients. We can thus surmise that the person who invented gunpowder lived prior to Boyang’s writing. Ge Hong, a scientist who lived during China’s Chin Dynasty around 300 AD wrote down the ingredients of gunpowder. Though having mentioned the ingredients he is not credited as the one who invented gunpowder. Ge Hong even went on to describe the explosion it makes. You mix the appropriate portions of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate to make it. People really began to put gunpowder to use in 700 AD during the T’ang Dynasty. The emperors during this dynasty used gunpowder in order to put up elaborate fireworks displays. But it was only in the year 904 AD when it was put to use...
Who Invented DNA Fingerprinting?

Who Invented DNA Fingerprinting?...

DNA fingerprinting (also known as DNA typing) is a special technique used to identify individuals based on their DNA profiles. One of the important uses of this technique is to provide reliable and credible evidence in courts. Other uses of the technique are for identifying one’s paternity and maternity as well as for personal identification. In several countries, the national government has DNA databases, which contain the DNA structures of citizens. To know more about this technique, let us take a look at the history of DNA fingerprinting. History of DNA Profiling Who invented DNA fingerprinting? DNA profiling was invented by scientist Sir Alec Jeffreys in his laboratory at the University of Leicester in Great Britain in 1985. The reason behind the invention of the technique is to identify which parts of the DNA sequences are different from an individual to another. However, at this time, the technologies that they can use to determine the sequences were limited. In this regard, Jeffreys only found small differences in the sequence when in fact; there are numerous variable sequences in the DNA. Jeffreys continued searching for techniques that can be used to identify all the varying sequences named as minisatellites. In order to succeed, he created a special probe that would be used to check if the minisatellites would react with a myoglobin gene. To do the experiment, he got DNA samples from his parents. On September 10, 1984, Jeffreys saw an inheritance pattern between the samples. He found out that DNA fingerprinting is a highly efficient technique that can be used to identify one’s paternity as well as maternity. He reported his findings in lectures and reports. He also published research at the Nature magazine about the technique. Two weeks...
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