Who Invented Aluminum Foil?

Who Invented Aluminum Foil?...

A study of the history of aluminum foil indicates that on April 2, 1889, Charles Martin Hall got a patent for producing the metal. The first rolling plant came out in 1910, called Dr. Lauber, Neher, Cie and Emmishofen. This was in Kreuzlingen, Switzerland. Early History and Origin Before aluminum foil came out, tin foil was used for packing foods and other products. The metal was stiff and could leave an adverse effect on the food. It was in 1825 that aluminum was discovered, courtesy of Hans Christian Oersted. The Danish chemist was the first to show actual samples of the foil. In 1845, the German scientist Friedrich Wohler was able to produce bigger samples. Through his work the basic characteristics of the metal could be discerned. This was a crucial point in the history of aluminum foil. It was in 1854 that the French chemist Henry Deville developed the means for mass producing it. Despite his efforts, foil was still too expensive to be of any practical use. It was not until Hall’s invention that the material became affordable. The patent number of the US inventor was #400,666. In 1888, Hall set up the Pittsburgh Reduction Company. It would become known as the Aluminum Company of America. From $1,200 a kilo in 1852, the cost of aluminum foil had gone down to 18 cents per pound in 1914. Another important inventor was Karl Joseph Bayer. In 1888, the Austrian chemist invented a process so aluminum oxide could be extracted from bauxite. This was another vital chapter in the history of aluminum foil. Today his methodology is still being used. The Lauber Aluminum Rolling Plant The Lauber plant in Switzerland was maintained by J.G. Neher and his sons. Their...
Who Invented Chalk?

Who Invented Chalk?

Your first encounter with chalk might have been in the classroom where you often see your teachers use them to write on a chalkboard. The most familiar form of chalk a lot of people have come familiar with is made of slender sticks around a quarter of an inch thick and about three inches long. You might even have come to wonder who invented chalk. Who Invented Chalk It might come as a disappointment to find out that no one can tell who invented chalk. Chalk is readily found in nature and has been used as a tool for drawing and writing for quite a long time. Drawings that date even to the prehistoric times have been discovered by archaeologists. The earliest chalk writings/drawings have been found in caves. As time went by artists from various countries used chalk to make drawings and sketches. Their work was protected using shellac or any comparable substance. For the convenience of these artists, a major innovation was introduced – chalks shaped into sticks. Even though chalk artists can’t be credited as the ones who invented chalk, their need introduced an innovation that would last for centuries. Making Chalk In the same way we don’t know who invented chalk, we also don’t know who invented the method to make chalk into sticks. What we know is that the method starts by grinding natural chalk into a very fine powdery form. Water is then added along with clay and various color pigments depending on what color of chalk you want to make. The clay actually acts as a binder of some sort. The mixture will initially look something like putty that would be rolled and shaped into cylinders and then would be left to...
Who Invented Fencing?

Who Invented Fencing?

One of the most favored sports of sport enthusiasts is fencing. There seems to be an abundance of movies, TV shows, and sport events that actually feature and use this sport. Although that is the case, it seems that not a lot of those who like playing or watching this type of sport ever knew who invented fencing. So who invented fencing? Let’s check what history says. Earliest Points in History About 1200 B.C., there is evidence that fencing has been used before. This is supported by carving in the country of Egypt where a couple of masks, weapon protection tips, and judges were known to have existed. Also, during the early times of the Early Greeks and Romans, there are also some evidences that came up. These people were known to have a love for spears and short swords during their time. Also, it was said that during this civilization, chosen warriors learn their skills in schools that were called as ludi. Beginnings of Modern Fencing History says that it was during the fifteenth century when the origins of the modern fencing sport that we know now started to come into being. During the years 1471 and 1474, there were two of the first fencing materials that were published and distributed in Spain to those who are interested to know how to play this sport. During those times, there were also swordplay guilds spreading throughout Europe. In the 1500s, the use of the Rapier became more extensive and widely used by the Italians. The position involved using both hands with different weapons. As such, the person would be seen holding a particular weapon on the right and a small shield (also known as the buckler) on the left....
Who Invented the Electric Water Heater?

Who Invented the Electric Water Heater?...

When you take showers or full baths nowadays, you can choose to have cold or hot water to wash yourself with. That is now one of the basic commodities that we have thanks to the person who invented the electric water heater years ago. Various Records of the Water Heater Some say that it was during the 1850s when an experiment started it all. However, there was no mention of the person who invented the electric water heater. That is why we can only speculate on the true creator since there are some accounts in history that mention some names of the possible creator but the inventions were done in different years. For the earliest record in the 1850s, water and bath were said to be used in the experiment. These were heated from underneath with the use of gas jets. Another account says that in the year 1868, there was an Englishman named Benjamin Maughan who was said to have invented the first water heater. This product was named as “The Geyser.” This particular device, that many thought to be a bit dangerous, was used to heat water flowing into the bath. And there are also others that say that it was indeed Edwin Ruud who created the first model of the water heater. However, there are some notes in the early years that mention Edwin Ruud, a Norwegian mechanical engineer, was merely initially influenced by the earlier invention of Maughan that is why Ruud’s creation was made afterwards. Ruud invention of the electric water heater (or automatic storage) was done in the year 1889. Later, Ruud founded the company called as the Ruud Manufacturing Company which carried a long line of these products. That is why many...
Who Invented the Sewing Machine?

Who Invented the Sewing Machine?...

Introduction A sewing machine is a machine designed to sew fabric or clothing together. Sewing has been around ever since man decided to wear clothes. The first needles and threads were made from animal parts such as horns, bones and sinews. Iron needles were invented in the 1500s. When the sewing machine was invented, it made mass production of clothes and fabrics much easier and affordable. Early Inventors the Sewing Machine Hand sewing is a slow process. For the clothing and fabric industries, it was also expensive. It meant having to pay more to tailors for work that took very long. So several inventors tried to address the problem by proposing mechanical sewing. In 1790 an Englishman named Thomas Saint was granted a patent for a sewing machine design. But there is no proof that Saint, a cabinet maker, ever built his machine. Later when a prototype was built based on his descriptions, it didn’t work. So he can’t be considered as the one who invented the sewing machine. In 1810, Balthasar Kremps of Germany made an unpatented design for sewing caps, but it was ineffective. Earlier in 1804 two patents were issued to two unsuccessful sewing machine designs: One to James Henderson and Thomas Stone in France, and another to John Duncan of Scotland. Joseph Madersperger of Austria came up with various sewing machine designs in 1814. Even though he got his patent, none of his inventions woked. Four years later in 1818, two Americans, John A. Doge and John Knowles failed in their attempt as well. Invention of the Sewing Machine It wasn’t until 1830 that the first successful sewing machine was invented. Its creator was another Frenchman, Barthelemy Thimonnier. His design had a chain stitch made...
Who Invented the Smoke Detector?

Who Invented the Smoke Detector?...

The history of smoke detectors started with American inventor Francis Robbins Upton. He created the first fire alarm in 1890. The patent no. was 436,961. He was a colleague of Thomas Edison but there’s evidence Edison worked on the device. Other Smoke Detectors Upton’s invention was very basic and other models would appear. The next one appeared by accident. In 1930. Swiss physicist Walter Jaeger was trying to make a sensor for poisonous gas. He was hoping that the gas would go in the sensor and ionize air. But the gas didn’t alter any currents. Jaeger lit a cigarette and saw the meter current go down. Jaeger’s discovery that smoke would affect the sensors changed the history of smoke detectors and how they were made. The Emergence of Home Smoke Detectors But these devices hardly made an impact. Electronic equipment made manufacturing very expensive. It wasn’t until the mid 1960s that affordable smoke alarms could be made. The few smoke detectors that were available were so expensive only large companies bothered to install them. The first home detectors were made by  Duane Pearsall in 1965. Their model made use of batteries. The design made it easy for homeowners to replace them. In 1975 Peterson and Pearsall began manufacturing smoke detectors. Their company Statitrol Corp was the first in the history of smoke detectors to sell the products. These models were comprised of metal and resistant to fire. The battery was made by Gates Energy. It didn’t take long before the rechargeable batteries were replaced by double A batteries. The devices proved very successful. By 1977, the company was shipping 500 units daily. In 1980, Statitrol sold its invention rights to Emerson Electrics. Sears would end up selling the product....
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