Who Invented the Spear?

Who Invented the Spear?

The Spear: A Universal Invention Who invented the spear? Humans can’t claim to be the sole inventor of this weapon. Scientists have found evidence that chimpanzees in Senegal also make them. They would break off tree branches and sharpen the ends with their teeth. Of course it is possible they figured out how from observing people. Another species of ape, the orangutan, learned to make spears after watching humans. Both animal species use their weapons to hunt for food. Archeological Evidence of Spears Among humans, the invention of spears seems to date back to over 400,000 years ago. This could be misleading since wooden spears can’t last much longer for archeologists to discover. It is clear that the Neanderthals used sharp-edged weapons in 300,000 BP. Early humans learned how to harden spears with fire in about 50,000 years later. Use of the Spear in the Ancient World Spears were used quite a lot in the Neolithic Age, Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. It was one of mankind’s oldest weapons. For example, in ancient Mesopotamia, soldiers used short spears for holding in one hand and a shield in the other. The Greeks invented the doru and later the long sarissa for their renowned phalanges battle formation. Alexander the Great and his father Philip won their battles using this strategy. The early Germanic and Celtic tribes also used the spear. They used them in boar hunting and warfare. When they died, Germanic warriors were buried with their spears. The fleur de lys, symbol of royal power, is thought to have been derived from a spear. Religious Symbolism of the Spear The spear was the favored weapon of some ancient gods such as Odin in Norse mythology and Lugh in...
Who Invented Halloween?

Who Invented Halloween?

The history of Halloween in the US began in 1846 courtesy of Irish immigrants. However the actual roots of the festival go back to the ancient Celts of Europe. The Origin of Halloween The Celtic festival known as Samhain is believed to be the predecessor of modern Halloween. Samhain marked the end of the Celtic harvest season. It was also the start of the Celtic New Year. The date for the New Year was October 31. On this day, the Celts believed that the lines separating the living and the dead dissipated. During this time, evil spirits were said to roam the Earth. To combat these forces, the Celts would don masks. This aspect in the history of Halloween helps explain the tradition of watching scary costumes during the festival. Where the Name Came From Halloween got its name from Hallowe’en. This in turn was derived from All Hallow’s Eve. During the 9th century, the church changed the date of All Saint’s Day or All Hallows’ Day from May 13 to November 1. November 2 was then declared as the day of the dead. For this reason, October 31 became known as All Hallows’ Eve. Despite the move of the church, the festival remained very popular among the people. Traditions No study of the history of Halloween would be complete without addressing the origins of its many symbols. The jack o lantern had its roots in Celtic beliefs too. During Samhain, the Celts would carve heads out of rutabaga. They believed that the head could ward off the evil sprits that were roaming the Erath. This legend became intertwined with Irish and British legends involving Stingy Jack. According to the story, Stingy Jack was a greedy farmer who conned...
Who Invented Radar?

Who Invented Radar?

The history of radar will show that it began in 1904. German engineer Christian Hulsmeyer created an apparatus capable of detecting an object’s presence some distance away. However, no single scientist invented the modern radar; scientists from several nations worked on it, especially during the 1930s and 40s. Pioneers in Radar Research Hulsmeyer received a patent for his invention in 1904. However it was Nikola Tesla who discovered that frequency could be used to detect the presence of vehicles as well as their course. The succeeding years saw American and European scientists develop various radar devices. Coming on the heels of World War I, nations began to realize how important it could be for warfare. One of the pioneers in the history of radar development was the Frenchman Emile Girardeau in 1934. He got a patent for his work. In 1935 it was put in the Normandie liner. Also that year, America had its first monopulse radar courtesy of Dr. Robert Page. The Russian engineer P.K. Oschepkov invented the RAPID. It could sense the presence of a vehicle within 3 km. A similar model was produced in Hungary a year later by Zoltan Ray. Robert Watson’s Radar System But it was Robert Watson’s invention that showed the radar’s full potential. In 1935, Watson showed his work to the British Air Ministry. During this time, the British were more concerned about the alleged German death ray. Watson stated that such a device was unlikely. At the same his radar impressed the British military that it became part of their defense system, the first in the history of radar. World War II and the Cold War World War II saw more rapid developments in radar technology. Both the British and the...
Who Invented Christmas?

Who Invented Christmas?

Christmas did not originate in the Christian religion. It came from the ancient Romans. Every year in December they held a festival called “Saturnalia” in honor of their god Saturn. The festival ran for a week starting in December 17 up to December 23. Saturnalia was a time of freedom and pleasure without consequence. People could do what they wanted and the law wouldn’t punish them. In fact, all courts of law were closed during the week-long festivities. The Romans would take this opportunity to play games, get drunk, run about naked and commit sexual acts that would be unacceptable at other times. Even the slaves got a break: for once the roles were reversed and they could insult their masters. A special banquet was prepared just for the slaves in each household. More disturbing, the Romans would choose an innocent person to be a type of scapegoat during the festival. This person would be considered the enemy of the community. He or she would be forced to self-indulge in many ways for a week, before being killed. The Christians used a clever tactic to get people to convert to their religion. They took the popular Roman festivals and changed them to fit into Christianity. While the names changed, the customs and practices stayed the same. It reassured people that they could convert to the new religion and still keep the old practices. Since Saturnalia was the major feast of the year, the Christians made it the birthday of their savior. However the actual Christmas Day itself, December 25, was not the last day of Saturnalia. It was the day of Sol Invictus, the “Invincible Sun.” Sol Invictus was part of a Roman warrior cult – in which the...
Who Invented Toilet Paper?

Who Invented Toilet Paper?...

Toilet paper is such a common thing that anyone can see every single day. It is so commonplace that people often take it for granted or even wonder who invented toilet paper. Toilet paper is actually different from facial competition when you compare their composition. It is actually designed to decompose once it reaches a septic tank. This might be its really distinct feature when compared to bathroom tissues and facial tissues. Among the many peoples of the world, the toilet paper takes on various names. Several common names for today’s toilet paper include toilet roll, loo roll, loo paper, dunny paper, dunny roll, toilet tissue, bathroom tissue, and TP. Early Origin Those who wonder who invented toilet paper will be astonished to find out that its origin really dates back to the second century BC. It was already around in China but was used as a padding material or used for wrapping. It is known that it was first used in world history in the 6th century AD. Early Chinese writers made mention of toilet paper in their works as early as 589 AD. Yan Zhitui wrote about it in 589 AD in his works. In 851 AD, it is known that a Muslim traveler traveling to China commented about the people’s cleanliness mentioning the use of paper instead of water. It is recorded that ten million packages of toilet paper was manufactured annually in the Yuan Dynasty. Each package had about a thousand to ten thousand sheets of toilet paper. Another mass production was recorded during the Ming Dynasty. It is found that there were more than 700,000 sheets were manufactured. It was intended for general use within the imperial court. With the said records it is...
Who Invented Money?

Who Invented Money?

Since the history of money extends to thousands of years into world history we can never really tell who invented money. By tracing the origin and history of trade we can deduce how money came into use according to the form we are familiar with today. When we say money, most of us would either think of coins or paper money. However, delving into its origins, we will see that money wasn’t always made of paper or metal. Defining Money When people talk about who invented money and its use they are basically talking about what essentially is a token. Money is actually an abstraction of a thing’s value. Paper currency is the most common form of physical money we all know. However, this wasn’t always the case essentially in the earlier centuries when money was already in existence. Origin and Emergence Money wasn’t always made of paper or coins, which is what is common today. During the earliest days of its use, money was usually a commodity or what we otherwise would call commodity money. People used to barter goods one for another carrying them around or transporting them on ships. The Phoenicians were known to take their commodities on ships making it easy to transport them and take back whatever goods they got in exchange. Scale economies were also developed as time went on. For example, the Sumer civilization based their economy on a scale system using commodity money. However, neither the Sumer civilization nor the Phoenicians can be said to be the ones who invented money. Other system of weights included the use of the shekel which has reference to a particular mass of barley. This can be correlated to system that is metric using copper,...
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