Who Invented Zero?

Who Invented Zero?

Few persons ever sit down and think about numbers and where they come from; it is just one of those things that we take for granted. Even if a person does wonder where numbers come from, the typical answer is that numbers originated with Roman numerals, but there are records of numbers being used as far back as 6000 BCE; however this only refers to numbers starting from 1, what about the number zero, where did it come from? The history of the zero is different from that of other numbers as ancient numerical systems did not have a zero, and a space was used where a zero should be. So let’s talk a little about the number zero and how it got into the numerical system. Where Zero Came From There are a lot of different stories about where the number zero comes from; one story says that the zero was first used as a number in India in the 9th century AD by Indian mathematician Aryabhata. It is also said that Indian scholar Pingala along with his fellow scholars used the Sanskrit word ??nya to refer to the number zero. Another story says that the number zero was invented by the Mayan civilization for use on their calendars, while yet another story claims that the zero dates back to 300 B.C. and was invented in Babylon. In the European society there is no evidence of the number zero being used until after 800 AD by the Arabs who were coming to trade with the Europeans; the name zero was also derived from the Arabic language. By 130 AD Ptolemy was using a small circle with a long over-bar to represent a zero; this symbol was used by...
Who Invented Paper?

Who Invented Paper?

The word “paper” came from the word “papyrus.” Papyrus was a plant abundant in Egypt. However, the acknowledged inventor of paper was a Chinese. So remember, as far as who invented paper is concerned, according to recorded history, the answer is a Chinese. The account below is how paper began. T’sai Lun Of China is the Winner! About 105 A.D. (some say 2000 years ago), there was a man from Lei-Yang, China named T’sai Lun. He was a courtier. He separated the fibers of huge wet mush. Paper is a mixture of pulped wood fibers and cotton or flax. They are pressed together then dried under the sun. That was what he did. That was how paper began. He spread it on a cloth mat framed with bamboo. After the sun had dried up the fiber mixture a new product emerged—paper. Thus, it is a by-product of other materials. But Paper is not Papyrus T’sai Lun may have had competitors in Egypt before for the title of who invented paper. But after careful weighing of facts, it was unanimously decided that he was really the one who invented paper. The papyrus that the Egyptians used was not really paper; it was more the bark of a plant, a raw unprocessed material. Paper, by definition, is a processed material derived from several raw materials. So the first man on earth who came up with the brilliant idea of inventing paper was T’sai Lun. Earlier Records of Writing Materials To be sure, man had been using writing materials long before T’sai Lun invented paper. As in the case of other inventions, he developed other people’s works. Man first wrote on rocks, on cave walls, on wood, on stone tablets or wet...
Who Invented the Iron?

Who Invented the Iron?

If there was no one who invented the iron, you could probably imagine how everyone’s clothes would look like after being washed and hanged on the clothesline to dry before using. Most probably, it would look really horrid with all its wrinkles and creases. That is why much gratitude should be extended to the person who invented the iron even though you may probably think that it was designed more as a simpler model than the ones on the market today. To Answer the Needs of Many Housewives Before the emergence of the iron in stores everywhere, many housewives in the early years had a hard time making their clothes look presentable and wrinkle-free. The early procedures included hand pressing, using steam or heat, or rolling procedures just to get things right. Those were the normal situations of the past – that may have seem a bit chaotic in many households – before a New Yorker named Henry W. Seely invented and patented the electric pressing iron on the 6th of June in the year 1882. This invention was named as the “electric flatiron.” Learning More about the Inventor Born in Richville, Kentucky, in July 2, 1854, Henry W. Seely had really gone a long way. Aside from inventions such as creating the first iron device, this inventor also had witnessed a number of patents. If you would do a research, you would see Seely’s name in more than a hundred patents for certain inventions in history. This includes the invention of the light bulb by Thomas Edison. The Early Usage of the First Model Unlike most of the current models, the first few irons that were manufactured years ago were known to use carbon arc. This was used...
Who Invented Toilet Paper?

Who Invented Toilet Paper?...

Toilet paper is such a common thing that anyone can see every single day. It is so commonplace that people often take it for granted or even wonder who invented toilet paper. Toilet paper is actually different from facial competition when you compare their composition. It is actually designed to decompose once it reaches a septic tank. This might be its really distinct feature when compared to bathroom tissues and facial tissues. Among the many peoples of the world, the toilet paper takes on various names. Several common names for today’s toilet paper include toilet roll, loo roll, loo paper, dunny paper, dunny roll, toilet tissue, bathroom tissue, and TP. Early Origin Those who wonder who invented toilet paper will be astonished to find out that its origin really dates back to the second century BC. It was already around in China but was used as a padding material or used for wrapping. It is known that it was first used in world history in the 6th century AD. Early Chinese writers made mention of toilet paper in their works as early as 589 AD. Yan Zhitui wrote about it in 589 AD in his works. In 851 AD, it is known that a Muslim traveler traveling to China commented about the people’s cleanliness mentioning the use of paper instead of water. It is recorded that ten million packages of toilet paper was manufactured annually in the Yuan Dynasty. Each package had about a thousand to ten thousand sheets of toilet paper. Another mass production was recorded during the Ming Dynasty. It is found that there were more than 700,000 sheets were manufactured. It was intended for general use within the imperial court. With the said records it is...
Who Invented the Calendar We Have Today?

Who Invented the Calendar We Have Today?...

Introduction The modern calendar is known as the Gregorian Calendar. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII who favored it over the Julian Calendar. But Gregory XIII only approved the calendar that bears his name. The actual inventor was Alosyius Lilius. Alosyius Lilius Biography Lilius was an Italian astronomer, physician and chronologist. He was from Ziro in Calabrio, Italy. Lilius’ chosen profession was medicine. He studied in Naples to become a doctor and served under the earl Carafa, a prominent nobleman. Some time later, Lilius began to teach in the Perugia University in 1552. Aside from his interest in medicine, Alosyius Lilius was also fascinated by time keeping and calendars. He noted problems with the Julian Calendar, the one that was being used in his time. So he wrote a paper proposing a new calendar system. But it did not get attention until years after his death in 1576. After Alosyius died, his brother Antonio turned over his manuscript to Pope Gregory XIII. The latter put it for review before a council. It was approved after some changes made by another astronomer, Christopher Clavius. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII issued a papal bull superseding the Julian with the Gregorian Calendar. It was slowly adopted by Christian countries one after the other. Now it is the system used by virtually everyone in the world. Why the Gregorian Calendar Replaced the Julian Calendar Julius Caesar invented the Julian system. All months had either 30 or 31 days, except for February. February or Februalia had 29 or 30 days depending on whether it was a leap year or not. Caesar named one month after himself, July. When Octavian became Roman emperor, he also renamed a month to August, after his new imperial...
Who Invented the Paper Clip?

Who Invented the Paper Clip?...

Our modern day paper clip owes its beginnings to William D. Middlebrook. Its patent is dated on November 9, 1899. It is interesting that for over a hundred years, in spite of humble beginnings, no one has yet been able to create a more efficient way to hold loose sheets of paper. We’ll look into who invented the paper clip and its humble beginnings. Early Beginnings Some consider Samuel Fay as the either the forerunner or the man himself who invented the paper clip. However, if you look at the patent he obtained dated April 23, 1867 he called the device as a Ticket Fastener. The original idea that Fay had was to have the ticket fastener attach tickets to garments. In the description of the fastener you’ll find that as an additional use, it could be hold pieces of paper together. Samuel Fay was not the only one who submitted or invented the paper clip’s predecessors or devices like unto it. There were in fact some other 50 designs that were patented that would seem to be early precursors. The difference however is that the designs submitted prior to that of William Middlebrook’s don’t even come close to what the modern day paper clip would look like. Birth of the Paper Clip As mentioned earlier, William Middlebrook is credited as the one who invented the paper clip we know today. He in fact not only invented the paper clip but also the machine that would make paper clips. The drawings on the patent distinctly portray our modern day paper clip. The patent William Middlebrook obtained was for both the paper clip and its production machine. Coming of the GEM In the year 1899 the manufacturing company Cushman and...
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