Who Invented CPR?

Who Invented CPR?

Introduction CPR stands for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation. It is one of the most important and universally practiced first-aid methods in the world. CPR is the only first aid treatment proven to save the life of a cardiac arrest victim until further help is arrives. Invention of CPR CPR was invented by Austrian surgeon Peter Safar. Safar was born in Vienna on the 12th of April, 1924. Both is parents worked in the medical profession. His father was a surgeon and his mother was a pediatrician. He studied medicine in the University of Vienna where he got his M.D. in 1948. Safer then specialized in surgery and oncology before traveling to Connecticut in 1950. There he studied at the Yale New Haven Hospital. Two years later he also completed studies in anesthesiology at the University of Philadelphia. Safar later got a job in Lima, Peru as overseer of the anesthesiology department there. Later he transferred to Baltimore, Maryland to do similar work. It was there he did research on current life saving techniques. Safer combined three existing methods in one: mouth to mouth resuscitation, head tilting and chest massage (or cardiac massage). These formed the basis for what will become the famous CPR technique. A humble man, Safar never tried to claim originality for his invention. He always said that he only put together techniques that were already known in his time. instead he worked hard to disseminate knowledge of CPR to as many people as people. He called the method “ABC” – for airway, breathing and heart circulation. Safar made progress in other areas of medicine as well. He helped build the biggest anesthesiology department in the country in Pittsburgh in 1961. There he devoted himself to improving critical care...
Who Invented Medicine?

Who Invented Medicine?

The history of medicine began when primitive peoples learned to use plants and herbs to cure their illnesses. There are 25,000 year old drawings in the Lascaux caves in France showing plants being used for healing. These drawings are the earliest evidence of plant medicinal use. Medicine in Ancient Egypt The oldest known Egyptian remedies go back to 3000 BC. As far back as 2750 BC the Egyptians had performed rudimentary forms of surgery. The Edwin Smith papyrus states the Egyptians dealt with illnesses by examination and doing prognosis. It should be noted though that the Edwin Smith papyrus is just one kind. Other papyri showed the Egyptians relying on magic to ward off diseases. Greek and Roman Medicine The history of medicine in Greece was quite advanced. Hippocrates has been termed the father of modern medicine. Hippocrates and his corpus were the ones who first recognized the importance of finger clubbing in detecting lung ailments. Hippocrates also classified illnesses as either chronic, endemic etc. He is also the first doctor to perform chest surgery. But he is probably best known for the Hippocratic Oath, which is still taken by doctors today. The Romans were noted for their surgical instruments. They were the ones who made use of scalpels, surgical needles and specula. They were also instrumental in developing cataract operations. Medicine in the Medieval Age A study of the history of medicine shows that it suffered a decline during ths period. The fall of Rome was followed by economic collapse. Except for a few monasteries, medical knowledge were limited to the few. People relied on superstition and folklore to get rid of ailments. It was only during the Renaissance that interest in medicine was reignited. It began with...
Who Invented Physical Fitness?

Who Invented Physical Fitness?...

Who Invented Physical Fitness? Physical fitness as a special discipline was unknown in times past. Men and women had to go out and get things just about all the time. So there was no need to invent activities just to stay fit. Primitive people (10,000 BC and earlier) for example, were always out hunting or gathering food, chasing (or running away from) wild animals, or moving to new territory. Things changed somewhat at around 8,000 BC when men first learned how to raise crops and keep farm animals. But their lives were still very active on the whole. It was only much later when human life became very sedentary that the concept of physical fitness began to arise. At some point in time, people began to associate certain diseases with wrong or lack of physical exercise. It is here we can say that physical fitness has its first incarnation as a separate discipline. The oldest traces of references to physical fitness go back to around 2,500 BC in different regions. Foremost of these was Greece. It was the Greeks who invented both the Olympics and the gymnasiums. The Athenians idealized the human body and physical fitness so much that they held sports events regularly to celebrate it. Physical strength played an even bigger role in Sparta, but it was more for military purposes than anything else. In China, the government and society were strongly influenced by Confucius’ ideas. Confucianism encouraged physical fitness for health as well as ethical reasons. The Chinese Taoists also had reasons to invent physical fitness: they wanted to extend life if not become immortal. So the Chinese developed exercise routines known as Kung Fu, Tai Chi, Chi Kung and other names. A similar development happened...
Who Invented the Electronic Cigarette?

Who Invented the Electronic Cigarette?...

Since around the later portion of the 1950s, society started to realize that tobacco cigarettes caused health problems. As research progressed along with increasing numbers of people that developed lung cancer, emphysema, and other smoking related illnesses, cigarette smoking has become less accepted and popular. Unfortunately, the nicotine contained in cigarettes is one of the most addictive substances on the planet and makes quitting smoking one of the hardest things to do. In 2003, Chinese pharmacist, Hon Lik invented the electronic cigarette as a safer, and cleaner way to inhale nicotine after his father, a heavy smoker, passed away from lung cancer attributed to smoking tobacco cigarettes. The Invention of the Electronic Cigarette Hon Lik applied for his first patent on the electronic cigarette in 2003 and subsequently introduced e cigs to the Chinese Market in the following year through his employer, Golden Dragon Holdings. Golden Dragon Holdings later changed the company name to “Ruyan” in order to better match the company’s name (Ruyan means “almost like smoke”) to the new product. Since the renaming, the Ruyan company has continued e cigarette development and grown to be one of the largest global e cig manufacturers. Dr. Sam Han, CEO of Cixi E-CIG Technology, Inc. Ltd. Is also attributed with a number of e cig related inventions to include four patents in the United States and two in China that are electronic cigarette and e-liquid technology related. Similar to Hon Lik, Dr Han was a heavy smoker for more than 40 years before beginning work on electronic cigarette technologies in order to help himself and others make the shift to vapor smoking. Dr. Han continues to market and conduct R&D in e cig related technologies to this date. History of...
Who Invented the Toilet?

Who Invented the Toilet?...

The name Thomas Crapper is bound to come up whenever people discuss who invented the toilet. Sometimes it is given with serious consideration while others only take delight in the pun regarding his name. Thomas Crapper was a sanitary engineer who contributed to the design of the modern day flush toilet. However, it is interesting that there have been toilets in existence even thousands of years ago. Origin from Crete The earliest possible hint we have as to who invented the toilet dates back up to around 4,000 years into the past. There are those who theorize that an unnamed Minoan, which means a local of Crete, is the inventor of today’s toilet. However, an unknown and unnamed Minoan won’t give us who invented the toilet. At least we now know that as early as 2,500 B.C. seated toilets have been in use, which means that such toilets also had a drainage system. John Harrington Next among the theories on who invented the toilet comes John Harrington in the 16th Century. He was quite an unfortunate earl who angered Queen Elizabeth. Part of his works include a translation of Orlando Furioso, which was noted to have been done with both perseverance and skill. In relation to the question of who invented the toilet, Sir John Harrington published The Metamorphosis of Ajax, which is one of a trio of works that was published in succession in 1596. It contained the supposedly very first design of a water closet. Alexander Cumming The origin of the toilet takes another turn as Alexander Cumming comes into the scene. He is the first to patent a flushing device in 1775. His invention was a forerunner of the toilets we use today. Thomas Crapper He...
Who Invented the Pacemaker?

Who Invented the Pacemaker?...

The pacemaker was invented by the Canadian John Hopps in 1950. He was an electrical engineer who was doing research on hypothermia. Unlike other inventions, the development and history of the pacemaker is clearly understood. Hopps’ Invention Hopps was an engineer at Manitoba University in 1941 when he went to the National Research Council. He was working with radio frequencies and how it can be used to bring up body temperature. It was then he learned that a heart that stops due to cooling can be restarted. The way to do it was with mechanical or electrical methods. This discovery helped him conceive of the pacemaker. His creation in 1950 though, could not be fitted in the body; it was the external type. Early Researchers Event before Hopps’ invention, there were other researchers who had done some experiments. A study of the history of the pacemaker suggests J A McWilliams was the first. In 1889 he made a report in the British Medical Journal of his experiments. McWilliams said applying electric impulses on the heart led to ventricular contraction. His experiment showed heart beats 70 per minute could be attained by these impulses. This was followed in 1926 by the findings of Dr. Mark Lidwell of Sydney. He invented an apparatus that strongly resembled the pacemaker. In 1932 the American physiologist Albert Hyman devised an instrument which he called the artificial pacemaker. It was the first time the term had been used. However he never continued with his experiments. The History of the Pacemaker after Hopps’ Invention After Hopps’ pacemaker was created, the silicon transistor was invented in 1956. This device helped in reducing the size of the pacemaker. A year later in 1957, Earl Bakken of Minnesota invented...
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