Who Invented Physical Fitness?

Who Invented Physical Fitness?...

Who Invented Physical Fitness? Physical fitness as a special discipline was unknown in times past. Men and women had to go out and get things just about all the time. So there was no need to invent activities just to stay fit. Primitive people (10,000 BC and earlier) for example, were always out hunting or gathering food, chasing (or running away from) wild animals, or moving to new territory. Things changed somewhat at around 8,000 BC when men first learned how to raise crops and keep farm animals. But their lives were still very active on the whole. It was only much later when human life became very sedentary that the concept of physical fitness began to arise. At some point in time, people began to associate certain diseases with wrong or lack of physical exercise. It is here we can say that physical fitness has its first incarnation as a separate discipline. The oldest traces of references to physical fitness go back to around 2,500 BC in different regions. Foremost of these was Greece. It was the Greeks who invented both the Olympics and the gymnasiums. The Athenians idealized the human body and physical fitness so much that they held sports events regularly to celebrate it. Physical strength played an even bigger role in Sparta, but it was more for military purposes than anything else. In China, the government and society were strongly influenced by Confucius’ ideas. Confucianism encouraged physical fitness for health as well as ethical reasons. The Chinese Taoists also had reasons to invent physical fitness: they wanted to extend life if not become immortal. So the Chinese developed exercise routines known as Kung Fu, Tai Chi, Chi Kung and other names. A similar development happened...
Who Invented Insulin?

Who Invented Insulin?

The history of insulin as medical treatment started around 1921-22. Dr. Frederick Banting of Toronto University discovered in his research that the hormone could be used to treat diabetes. Other researchers who helped him were Charles Best and Dr. James Collip. Early Research on Insulin It was a Berlin student named Paul Langerhans who discovered insulin in the pancreas in 1869. Langerhans called it insulin which in German means islet or island, for that is what the hormones look like. Initially it was thought that insulin played a role in digesting food. In 1889, a Polish-German scientist named Oscar Minkowski began studying the pancreas of the dog. When he took out the dog’s pancreas, he noticed flies kept going to the animal’s urine. This would be pivotal in the history of insulin as the scientists learned there was sugar in the urine. They established the link between pancreas, sugar and diabetes. In 1901 Eugene Opie discovered that diabetes and insulin (or islets) were closely linked, and not just pancreas and diabetes. Further Studies on Insulin This discovery convinced scientists that insulin could be used to produce treatment for diabetes. Some of the early researchers who tried extracting it were George Zuelzer in 1906 and E.L. Scott of Chicago University in 1912. However the outbreak of World War I interrupted research on insulin and diabetes. In 1921 a professor in Bucharest named Nicolae Paulescu became the first in the history of insulin to isolate it. While he patented his work, no clinical tests took place. Banting’s Work Banting’s work however, was the first that resulted in clinical testing. It took place in January 11, 1922. A 14 year old diabetic patient in Toronto was given an insulin injection. The injections...
Who Invented the Toothbrush?

Who Invented the Toothbrush?...

It is said that the greatest of inventions are those that are brimming with simplicity but still prove to be tools full of utility. If this is really the case, then the humble toothbrush can be regarded as one of the greatest inventions of all time, with its minimum complexity (or outright lack of it) and its indispensability in our modern way of life. The toothbrush has become one of the most essential tools of our modern, civilized, way of living. So much importance is given to oral hygiene today that most people are not aware that there was a time when the toothbrush was still just a figment in the imagination of the man who invented it. Before the toothbrush was invented, people around the world used different methods maintaining proper oral hygiene. Plant stalks, twigs from trees, feathers and quills from different animals are just examples of what can be regarded as the prototypes of the toothbrush. Civilizations such as those from India and Arabia primarily used plant parts to clean their teeth. The ancient book Ayurveda instructed its readers to utilize some parts of one tree indigenous to India to take care of their teeth. Likewise, Muslims also used the twigs of a native tree that has inherent antiseptic properties to fight tooth decay and cavities. Immediately before the toothbrush was invented, most people took care of their oral hygiene by using a cloth to wipe their teeth. The cloth is commonly used in tandem with soot and salt so as to add some antibacterial properties to the process. It is during this time when the modern toothbrush was invented due to one man’s discontent with the way people’s teeth are taken care. So who invented...
Who Invented the Electronic Cigarette?

Who Invented the Electronic Cigarette?...

Since around the later portion of the 1950s, society started to realize that tobacco cigarettes caused health problems. As research progressed along with increasing numbers of people that developed lung cancer, emphysema, and other smoking related illnesses, cigarette smoking has become less accepted and popular. Unfortunately, the nicotine contained in cigarettes is one of the most addictive substances on the planet and makes quitting smoking one of the hardest things to do. In 2003, Chinese pharmacist, Hon Lik invented the electronic cigarette as a safer, and cleaner way to inhale nicotine after his father, a heavy smoker, passed away from lung cancer attributed to smoking tobacco cigarettes. The Invention of the Electronic Cigarette Hon Lik applied for his first patent on the electronic cigarette in 2003 and subsequently introduced e cigs to the Chinese Market in the following year through his employer, Golden Dragon Holdings. Golden Dragon Holdings later changed the company name to “Ruyan” in order to better match the company’s name (Ruyan means “almost like smoke”) to the new product. Since the renaming, the Ruyan company has continued e cigarette development and grown to be one of the largest global e cig manufacturers. Dr. Sam Han, CEO of Cixi E-CIG Technology, Inc. Ltd. Is also attributed with a number of e cig related inventions to include four patents in the United States and two in China that are electronic cigarette and e-liquid technology related. Similar to Hon Lik, Dr Han was a heavy smoker for more than 40 years before beginning work on electronic cigarette technologies in order to help himself and others make the shift to vapor smoking. Dr. Han continues to market and conduct R&D in e cig related technologies to this date. History of...
Who Invented the Toilet?

Who Invented the Toilet?...

The name Thomas Crapper is bound to come up whenever people discuss who invented the toilet. Sometimes it is given with serious consideration while others only take delight in the pun regarding his name. Thomas Crapper was a sanitary engineer who contributed to the design of the modern day flush toilet. However, it is interesting that there have been toilets in existence even thousands of years ago. Origin from Crete The earliest possible hint we have as to who invented the toilet dates back up to around 4,000 years into the past. There are those who theorize that an unnamed Minoan, which means a local of Crete, is the inventor of today’s toilet. However, an unknown and unnamed Minoan won’t give us who invented the toilet. At least we now know that as early as 2,500 B.C. seated toilets have been in use, which means that such toilets also had a drainage system. John Harrington Next among the theories on who invented the toilet comes John Harrington in the 16th Century. He was quite an unfortunate earl who angered Queen Elizabeth. Part of his works include a translation of Orlando Furioso, which was noted to have been done with both perseverance and skill. In relation to the question of who invented the toilet, Sir John Harrington published The Metamorphosis of Ajax, which is one of a trio of works that was published in succession in 1596. It contained the supposedly very first design of a water closet. Alexander Cumming The origin of the toilet takes another turn as Alexander Cumming comes into the scene. He is the first to patent a flushing device in 1775. His invention was a forerunner of the toilets we use today. Thomas Crapper He...
Who Invented the Parkland Formula?

Who Invented the Parkland Formula?...

Unanimously considered as the primary fluid resuscitation procedure for treating burn shock, the Parkland Formula is utilized in practically every burn center in the United States. It was invented by Charles R. Baxter, a doctor at the Parkland Memorial Hospital from which the formula got its name. Located in Dallas, Texas, Parkland Memorial has a place in history as the hospital where the three principal figures involved in the 1963 assassination of US President John F. Kennedy had died; namely, President Kennedy himself, suspected gunman Lee Harvey Oswald, and Oswald’s killer Jack Ruby. It was in fact then-emergency room director Baxter himself who unsuccessfully attempted to save Kennedy’s life. He also performed surgery on Texas Governor John Connaly, who had been injured during the incident. Dr. Baxter realized that severely-burned patients required an enormous amount of fluid in the first day of their treatment, particularly during the first 8 hours. It was in 1968 when he began developing the Parkland Formula based on studies he had conducted on animals and later tests on 11 burn patients. The method entailed administering Lactated Ringer’s (LR) at a rate of ml/kg/% burn, administering half the volume during the initial 8 hours and the other half over the following 16 hours, with the urine output being used as a clinical guide. Dr. Baxter would also specify that the plasma is to be administered at 0.3-0.5 ml/kg/% burn over the initial resuscitation’s fourth 8-hour interval; taking note that crystalloid in itself was not adequate enough to remedy the volume shortage. He would eventually report that the application of plasma had been based on research made with animals, and that employing the same process on human subjects did not evince a plasma volume increase superior...
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