Who Invented Insulin?

Who Invented Insulin?

The history of insulin as medical treatment started around 1921-22. Dr. Frederick Banting of Toronto University discovered in his research that the hormone could be used to treat diabetes. Other researchers who helped him were Charles Best and Dr. James Collip. Early Research on Insulin It was a Berlin student named Paul Langerhans who discovered insulin in the pancreas in 1869. Langerhans called it insulin which in German means islet or island, for that is what the hormones look like. Initially it was thought that insulin played a role in digesting food. In 1889, a Polish-German scientist named Oscar Minkowski began studying the pancreas of the dog. When he took out the dog’s pancreas, he noticed flies kept going to the animal’s urine. This would be pivotal in the history of insulin as the scientists learned there was sugar in the urine. They established the link between pancreas, sugar and diabetes. In 1901 Eugene Opie discovered that diabetes and insulin (or islets) were closely linked, and not just pancreas and diabetes. Further Studies on Insulin This discovery convinced scientists that insulin could be used to produce treatment for diabetes. Some of the early researchers who tried extracting it were George Zuelzer in 1906 and E.L. Scott of Chicago University in 1912. However the outbreak of World War I interrupted research on insulin and diabetes. In 1921 a professor in Bucharest named Nicolae Paulescu became the first in the history of insulin to isolate it. While he patented his work, no clinical tests took place. Banting’s Work Banting’s work however, was the first that resulted in clinical testing. It took place in January 11, 1922. A 14 year old diabetic patient in Toronto was given an insulin injection. The injections...
Who Invented the Parkland Formula?

Who Invented the Parkland Formula?...

Unanimously considered as the primary fluid resuscitation procedure for treating burn shock, the Parkland Formula is utilized in practically every burn center in the United States. It was invented by Charles R. Baxter, a doctor at the Parkland Memorial Hospital from which the formula got its name. Located in Dallas, Texas, Parkland Memorial has a place in history as the hospital where the three principal figures involved in the 1963 assassination of US President John F. Kennedy had died; namely, President Kennedy himself, suspected gunman Lee Harvey Oswald, and Oswald’s killer Jack Ruby. It was in fact then-emergency room director Baxter himself who unsuccessfully attempted to save Kennedy’s life. He also performed surgery on Texas Governor John Connaly, who had been injured during the incident. Dr. Baxter realized that severely-burned patients required an enormous amount of fluid in the first day of their treatment, particularly during the first 8 hours. It was in 1968 when he began developing the Parkland Formula based on studies he had conducted on animals and later tests on 11 burn patients. The method entailed administering Lactated Ringer’s (LR) at a rate of ml/kg/% burn, administering half the volume during the initial 8 hours and the other half over the following 16 hours, with the urine output being used as a clinical guide. Dr. Baxter would also specify that the plasma is to be administered at 0.3-0.5 ml/kg/% burn over the initial resuscitation’s fourth 8-hour interval; taking note that crystalloid in itself was not adequate enough to remedy the volume shortage. He would eventually report that the application of plasma had been based on research made with animals, and that employing the same process on human subjects did not evince a plasma volume increase superior...
Who Invented Toothpaste?

Who Invented Toothpaste?...

The modern history of toothpaste began in 1892. That was the year Dr. Washington Sheffield of the USA invented the collapsible tube for storing toothpaste. Four years later in 1896, Colgate began making its own brand. The Early Toothpastes The earliest known reference to any mixture for cleaning teeth comes from a 4th century AD Egyptian manuscript. The ingredients included flowers that would be crushed together. Exactly how this was used is unclear. But it is known that the Greeks and Romans used some form of toothpaste. Among the ingredients they used were animal bones and oyster shells. The history of toothpaste also shows that it was available in 9th century Persia. A musician named Ziryab invented a mixture similar to toothpaste. The exact ingredients are still unknown. However it became very popular, especially in Spain. To this day, it’s still uncertain as to how these toothpastes were used. Some Native Americans used neem tree twigs as a toothbrush. Whether these twigs were used by the ancient Europeans is still undetermined. Some historians assert that the early toothpastes were rubbed on the teeth using cloth. Tooth Powder During the 19th century, tooth powders became popular in the UK. They were made from salt or chalk. A look at the history of toothpaste indicates that even charcoal were used as tooth powder. However there were other toothpaste formulas used. Some manuscripts show toothpastes in 18th century America were made from burnt bread. Other toothpastes included resin, alum and cinnamon. Quite possibly an assortment of herbs were employed as well. The Modern Toothpaste Appears In 1900 toothpaste consisting of hydrogen peroxide and baking soda started to be manufactured. However it was not until the outbreak of World War I that Sheffield’s...
Who Invented CPR?

Who Invented CPR?

Introduction CPR stands for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation. It is one of the most important and universally practiced first-aid methods in the world. CPR is the only first aid treatment proven to save the life of a cardiac arrest victim until further help is arrives. Invention of CPR CPR was invented by Austrian surgeon Peter Safar. Safar was born in Vienna on the 12th of April, 1924. Both is parents worked in the medical profession. His father was a surgeon and his mother was a pediatrician. He studied medicine in the University of Vienna where he got his M.D. in 1948. Safer then specialized in surgery and oncology before traveling to Connecticut in 1950. There he studied at the Yale New Haven Hospital. Two years later he also completed studies in anesthesiology at the University of Philadelphia. Safar later got a job in Lima, Peru as overseer of the anesthesiology department there. Later he transferred to Baltimore, Maryland to do similar work. It was there he did research on current life saving techniques. Safer combined three existing methods in one: mouth to mouth resuscitation, head tilting and chest massage (or cardiac massage). These formed the basis for what will become the famous CPR technique. A humble man, Safar never tried to claim originality for his invention. He always said that he only put together techniques that were already known in his time. instead he worked hard to disseminate knowledge of CPR to as many people as people. He called the method “ABC” – for airway, breathing and heart circulation. Safar made progress in other areas of medicine as well. He helped build the biggest anesthesiology department in the country in Pittsburgh in 1961. There he devoted himself to improving critical care...
Who Invented Medicine?

Who Invented Medicine?

The history of medicine began when primitive peoples learned to use plants and herbs to cure their illnesses. There are 25,000 year old drawings in the Lascaux caves in France showing plants being used for healing. These drawings are the earliest evidence of plant medicinal use. Medicine in Ancient Egypt The oldest known Egyptian remedies go back to 3000 BC. As far back as 2750 BC the Egyptians had performed rudimentary forms of surgery. The Edwin Smith papyrus states the Egyptians dealt with illnesses by examination and doing prognosis. It should be noted though that the Edwin Smith papyrus is just one kind. Other papyri showed the Egyptians relying on magic to ward off diseases. Greek and Roman Medicine The history of medicine in Greece was quite advanced. Hippocrates has been termed the father of modern medicine. Hippocrates and his corpus were the ones who first recognized the importance of finger clubbing in detecting lung ailments. Hippocrates also classified illnesses as either chronic, endemic etc. He is also the first doctor to perform chest surgery. But he is probably best known for the Hippocratic Oath, which is still taken by doctors today. The Romans were noted for their surgical instruments. They were the ones who made use of scalpels, surgical needles and specula. They were also instrumental in developing cataract operations. Medicine in the Medieval Age A study of the history of medicine shows that it suffered a decline during ths period. The fall of Rome was followed by economic collapse. Except for a few monasteries, medical knowledge were limited to the few. People relied on superstition and folklore to get rid of ailments. It was only during the Renaissance that interest in medicine was reignited. It began with...
Who Invented Physical Fitness?

Who Invented Physical Fitness?...

Who Invented Physical Fitness? Physical fitness as a special discipline was unknown in times past. Men and women had to go out and get things just about all the time. So there was no need to invent activities just to stay fit. Primitive people (10,000 BC and earlier) for example, were always out hunting or gathering food, chasing (or running away from) wild animals, or moving to new territory. Things changed somewhat at around 8,000 BC when men first learned how to raise crops and keep farm animals. But their lives were still very active on the whole. It was only much later when human life became very sedentary that the concept of physical fitness began to arise. At some point in time, people began to associate certain diseases with wrong or lack of physical exercise. It is here we can say that physical fitness has its first incarnation as a separate discipline. The oldest traces of references to physical fitness go back to around 2,500 BC in different regions. Foremost of these was Greece. It was the Greeks who invented both the Olympics and the gymnasiums. The Athenians idealized the human body and physical fitness so much that they held sports events regularly to celebrate it. Physical strength played an even bigger role in Sparta, but it was more for military purposes than anything else. In China, the government and society were strongly influenced by Confucius’ ideas. Confucianism encouraged physical fitness for health as well as ethical reasons. The Chinese Taoists also had reasons to invent physical fitness: they wanted to extend life if not become immortal. So the Chinese developed exercise routines known as Kung Fu, Tai Chi, Chi Kung and other names. A similar development happened...
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