Who Invented Chemotherapy?

Who Invented Chemotherapy?...

Chemotherapy is a very important medical procedure used widely to treat people with severe illnesses, specifically cancer patients. Designed to kill cells, it is guaranteed to have positive effects against cancerous tumors and microorganisms. It affects the cells in hair follicles, digestive tract as well as bone marrow. People who undergo it usually experience hair loss or alopecia, inflammation of the digestive tract lining or mucositis and decreased blood cell production or myelosuppression. Aside from these significant details, it is good to know other important information about it including who invented chemotherapy. The Invention of Chemotherapy Who invented chemotherapy? Based on reports, it was Alfred Gilman and Louis S. Goodman who invented this kind of treatment. In the 1940s, the U.S. Department of Defense hired them to conduct research on the use of nitrogen mustard as therapeutic agent. They found that such chemical warfare agent could actually treat lymphoma. After that, Eli Lilly discovered the effectiveness of Madagascar periwinkle in blocking tumor cell proliferation. In 1965, the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy as cancer treatment was discovered. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Information The use of drugs and chemical substances as medication originated in ancient India, where the people once adhered to the practice referred to as Ayurveda. As part of this practice, people herbs and metals were used widely to treat various types of illnesses. By the 10th century, a Persian physician named Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi started the chemical use for medical purposes. Amongst the items he used were alcohol, bitumen and tar. Likewise, he also used other unconventional materials to treat diseases such as arsenic salts, mercuric salts and copper. Primarily, doctors recommend chemotherapy to patients in order to palliate symptoms or prolong life. This specific kind...
Who Invented Medicine?

Who Invented Medicine?

The history of medicine began when primitive peoples learned to use plants and herbs to cure their illnesses. There are 25,000 year old drawings in the Lascaux caves in France showing plants being used for healing. These drawings are the earliest evidence of plant medicinal use. Medicine in Ancient Egypt The oldest known Egyptian remedies go back to 3000 BC. As far back as 2750 BC the Egyptians had performed rudimentary forms of surgery. The Edwin Smith papyrus states the Egyptians dealt with illnesses by examination and doing prognosis. It should be noted though that the Edwin Smith papyrus is just one kind. Other papyri showed the Egyptians relying on magic to ward off diseases. Greek and Roman Medicine The history of medicine in Greece was quite advanced. Hippocrates has been termed the father of modern medicine. Hippocrates and his corpus were the ones who first recognized the importance of finger clubbing in detecting lung ailments. Hippocrates also classified illnesses as either chronic, endemic etc. He is also the first doctor to perform chest surgery. But he is probably best known for the Hippocratic Oath, which is still taken by doctors today. The Romans were noted for their surgical instruments. They were the ones who made use of scalpels, surgical needles and specula. They were also instrumental in developing cataract operations. Medicine in the Medieval Age A study of the history of medicine shows that it suffered a decline during ths period. The fall of Rome was followed by economic collapse. Except for a few monasteries, medical knowledge were limited to the few. People relied on superstition and folklore to get rid of ailments. It was only during the Renaissance that interest in medicine was reignited. It began with...
Who Invented Physical Fitness?

Who Invented Physical Fitness?...

Who Invented Physical Fitness? Physical fitness as a special discipline was unknown in times past. Men and women had to go out and get things just about all the time. So there was no need to invent activities just to stay fit. Primitive people (10,000 BC and earlier) for example, were always out hunting or gathering food, chasing (or running away from) wild animals, or moving to new territory. Things changed somewhat at around 8,000 BC when men first learned how to raise crops and keep farm animals. But their lives were still very active on the whole. It was only much later when human life became very sedentary that the concept of physical fitness began to arise. At some point in time, people began to associate certain diseases with wrong or lack of physical exercise. It is here we can say that physical fitness has its first incarnation as a separate discipline. The oldest traces of references to physical fitness go back to around 2,500 BC in different regions. Foremost of these was Greece. It was the Greeks who invented both the Olympics and the gymnasiums. The Athenians idealized the human body and physical fitness so much that they held sports events regularly to celebrate it. Physical strength played an even bigger role in Sparta, but it was more for military purposes than anything else. In China, the government and society were strongly influenced by Confucius’ ideas. Confucianism encouraged physical fitness for health as well as ethical reasons. The Chinese Taoists also had reasons to invent physical fitness: they wanted to extend life if not become immortal. So the Chinese developed exercise routines known as Kung Fu, Tai Chi, Chi Kung and other names. A similar development happened...
Who Invented CPR?

Who Invented CPR?

Introduction CPR stands for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation. It is one of the most important and universally practiced first-aid methods in the world. CPR is the only first aid treatment proven to save the life of a cardiac arrest victim until further help is arrives. Invention of CPR CPR was invented by Austrian surgeon Peter Safar. Safar was born in Vienna on the 12th of April, 1924. Both is parents worked in the medical profession. His father was a surgeon and his mother was a pediatrician. He studied medicine in the University of Vienna where he got his M.D. in 1948. Safer then specialized in surgery and oncology before traveling to Connecticut in 1950. There he studied at the Yale New Haven Hospital. Two years later he also completed studies in anesthesiology at the University of Philadelphia. Safar later got a job in Lima, Peru as overseer of the anesthesiology department there. Later he transferred to Baltimore, Maryland to do similar work. It was there he did research on current life saving techniques. Safer combined three existing methods in one: mouth to mouth resuscitation, head tilting and chest massage (or cardiac massage). These formed the basis for what will become the famous CPR technique. A humble man, Safar never tried to claim originality for his invention. He always said that he only put together techniques that were already known in his time. instead he worked hard to disseminate knowledge of CPR to as many people as people. He called the method “ABC” – for airway, breathing and heart circulation. Safar made progress in other areas of medicine as well. He helped build the biggest anesthesiology department in the country in Pittsburgh in 1961. There he devoted himself to improving critical care...
Who Invented Insulin?

Who Invented Insulin?

The history of insulin as medical treatment started around 1921-22. Dr. Frederick Banting of Toronto University discovered in his research that the hormone could be used to treat diabetes. Other researchers who helped him were Charles Best and Dr. James Collip. Early Research on Insulin It was a Berlin student named Paul Langerhans who discovered insulin in the pancreas in 1869. Langerhans called it insulin which in German means islet or island, for that is what the hormones look like. Initially it was thought that insulin played a role in digesting food. In 1889, a Polish-German scientist named Oscar Minkowski began studying the pancreas of the dog. When he took out the dog’s pancreas, he noticed flies kept going to the animal’s urine. This would be pivotal in the history of insulin as the scientists learned there was sugar in the urine. They established the link between pancreas, sugar and diabetes. In 1901 Eugene Opie discovered that diabetes and insulin (or islets) were closely linked, and not just pancreas and diabetes. Further Studies on Insulin This discovery convinced scientists that insulin could be used to produce treatment for diabetes. Some of the early researchers who tried extracting it were George Zuelzer in 1906 and E.L. Scott of Chicago University in 1912. However the outbreak of World War I interrupted research on insulin and diabetes. In 1921 a professor in Bucharest named Nicolae Paulescu became the first in the history of insulin to isolate it. While he patented his work, no clinical tests took place. Banting’s Work Banting’s work however, was the first that resulted in clinical testing. It took place in January 11, 1922. A 14 year old diabetic patient in Toronto was given an insulin injection. The injections...
Who Invented the Hearing Aid?

Who Invented the Hearing Aid?...

No one really knows who invented the first hearing aid device. A study of the history of hearing aids will show that one of the first electric hearing aids was the Akoulathon. This was made by Miller Reese Hutchinson in 1898. Hutchinson’s Invention Hutchinson’s creation was sold in 1901 by the Akaphone Company. The apparatus itself required a carbon transmitter for the hearing aid and telephone. The device was subsequently used to increase the sound. By the 1920’s the transistor took the place of the carbon transmitter. Early History of the Hearing Aid However there were other forms of hearing aid that came out before Hutchinson’s invention. These consisted of trumpets, horns and other similar designs. These devices would later change into transistor radio like devices. During the early history of hearing aids, these devices had to be worn around the body. They were quite heavy and uncomfortable to wear. These early devices were called ear horns or trumpets. They were shaped like funnel cones and worked by concentrating sound into the funnel. These prototypes were later replaced by the bone anchor hearing aid. Different Types of Hearing Aids Since Hutchinson’s invention, hearing aids have assumed various forms and shapes. One of the earliest types was the body worn aid. This was invented by Bells Labs researcher Harvey Fletcher. In the long history of hearing aids, Fletcher is in fact often credited with inventing hearing aids. Fletcher’s invention consisted of an ear mold and a case where the amplifiers were stored. The case and ear mold were linked by a cord. These would soon be replaced by the BTE (behind the ear) aids. These consisted of plastic and set on the pinna. Using air conduction, sound is sent to...
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