Who Invented the Hearing Aid?

Who Invented the Hearing Aid?...

No one really knows who invented the first hearing aid device. A study of the history of hearing aids will show that one of the first electric hearing aids was the Akoulathon. This was made by Miller Reese Hutchinson in 1898. Hutchinson’s Invention Hutchinson’s creation was sold in 1901 by the Akaphone Company. The apparatus itself required a carbon transmitter for the hearing aid and telephone. The device was subsequently used to increase the sound. By the 1920’s the transistor took the place of the carbon transmitter. Early History of the Hearing Aid However there were other forms of hearing aid that came out before Hutchinson’s invention. These consisted of trumpets, horns and other similar designs. These devices would later change into transistor radio like devices. During the early history of hearing aids, these devices had to be worn around the body. They were quite heavy and uncomfortable to wear. These early devices were called ear horns or trumpets. They were shaped like funnel cones and worked by concentrating sound into the funnel. These prototypes were later replaced by the bone anchor hearing aid. Different Types of Hearing Aids Since Hutchinson’s invention, hearing aids have assumed various forms and shapes. One of the earliest types was the body worn aid. This was invented by Bells Labs researcher Harvey Fletcher. In the long history of hearing aids, Fletcher is in fact often credited with inventing hearing aids. Fletcher’s invention consisted of an ear mold and a case where the amplifiers were stored. The case and ear mold were linked by a cord. These would soon be replaced by the BTE (behind the ear) aids. These consisted of plastic and set on the pinna. Using air conduction, sound is sent to...
Who Invented Insulin?

Who Invented Insulin?

The history of insulin as medical treatment started around 1921-22. Dr. Frederick Banting of Toronto University discovered in his research that the hormone could be used to treat diabetes. Other researchers who helped him were Charles Best and Dr. James Collip. Early Research on Insulin It was a Berlin student named Paul Langerhans who discovered insulin in the pancreas in 1869. Langerhans called it insulin which in German means islet or island, for that is what the hormones look like. Initially it was thought that insulin played a role in digesting food. In 1889, a Polish-German scientist named Oscar Minkowski began studying the pancreas of the dog. When he took out the dog’s pancreas, he noticed flies kept going to the animal’s urine. This would be pivotal in the history of insulin as the scientists learned there was sugar in the urine. They established the link between pancreas, sugar and diabetes. In 1901 Eugene Opie discovered that diabetes and insulin (or islets) were closely linked, and not just pancreas and diabetes. Further Studies on Insulin This discovery convinced scientists that insulin could be used to produce treatment for diabetes. Some of the early researchers who tried extracting it were George Zuelzer in 1906 and E.L. Scott of Chicago University in 1912. However the outbreak of World War I interrupted research on insulin and diabetes. In 1921 a professor in Bucharest named Nicolae Paulescu became the first in the history of insulin to isolate it. While he patented his work, no clinical tests took place. Banting’s Work Banting’s work however, was the first that resulted in clinical testing. It took place in January 11, 1922. A 14 year old diabetic patient in Toronto was given an insulin injection. The injections...
Who Invented Chemotherapy?

Who Invented Chemotherapy?...

Chemotherapy is a very important medical procedure used widely to treat people with severe illnesses, specifically cancer patients. Designed to kill cells, it is guaranteed to have positive effects against cancerous tumors and microorganisms. It affects the cells in hair follicles, digestive tract as well as bone marrow. People who undergo it usually experience hair loss or alopecia, inflammation of the digestive tract lining or mucositis and decreased blood cell production or myelosuppression. Aside from these significant details, it is good to know other important information about it including who invented chemotherapy. The Invention of Chemotherapy Who invented chemotherapy? Based on reports, it was Alfred Gilman and Louis S. Goodman who invented this kind of treatment. In the 1940s, the U.S. Department of Defense hired them to conduct research on the use of nitrogen mustard as therapeutic agent. They found that such chemical warfare agent could actually treat lymphoma. After that, Eli Lilly discovered the effectiveness of Madagascar periwinkle in blocking tumor cell proliferation. In 1965, the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy as cancer treatment was discovered. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Information The use of drugs and chemical substances as medication originated in ancient India, where the people once adhered to the practice referred to as Ayurveda. As part of this practice, people herbs and metals were used widely to treat various types of illnesses. By the 10th century, a Persian physician named Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi started the chemical use for medical purposes. Amongst the items he used were alcohol, bitumen and tar. Likewise, he also used other unconventional materials to treat diseases such as arsenic salts, mercuric salts and copper. Primarily, doctors recommend chemotherapy to patients in order to palliate symptoms or prolong life. This specific kind...
Who Invented the Toothbrush?

Who Invented the Toothbrush?...

It is said that the greatest of inventions are those that are brimming with simplicity but still prove to be tools full of utility. If this is really the case, then the humble toothbrush can be regarded as one of the greatest inventions of all time, with its minimum complexity (or outright lack of it) and its indispensability in our modern way of life. The toothbrush has become one of the most essential tools of our modern, civilized, way of living. So much importance is given to oral hygiene today that most people are not aware that there was a time when the toothbrush was still just a figment in the imagination of the man who invented it. Before the toothbrush was invented, people around the world used different methods maintaining proper oral hygiene. Plant stalks, twigs from trees, feathers and quills from different animals are just examples of what can be regarded as the prototypes of the toothbrush. Civilizations such as those from India and Arabia primarily used plant parts to clean their teeth. The ancient book Ayurveda instructed its readers to utilize some parts of one tree indigenous to India to take care of their teeth. Likewise, Muslims also used the twigs of a native tree that has inherent antiseptic properties to fight tooth decay and cavities. Immediately before the toothbrush was invented, most people took care of their oral hygiene by using a cloth to wipe their teeth. The cloth is commonly used in tandem with soot and salt so as to add some antibacterial properties to the process. It is during this time when the modern toothbrush was invented due to one man’s discontent with the way people’s teeth are taken care. So who invented...
Who Invented the Parkland Formula?

Who Invented the Parkland Formula?...

Unanimously considered as the primary fluid resuscitation procedure for treating burn shock, the Parkland Formula is utilized in practically every burn center in the United States. It was invented by Charles R. Baxter, a doctor at the Parkland Memorial Hospital from which the formula got its name. Located in Dallas, Texas, Parkland Memorial has a place in history as the hospital where the three principal figures involved in the 1963 assassination of US President John F. Kennedy had died; namely, President Kennedy himself, suspected gunman Lee Harvey Oswald, and Oswald’s killer Jack Ruby. It was in fact then-emergency room director Baxter himself who unsuccessfully attempted to save Kennedy’s life. He also performed surgery on Texas Governor John Connaly, who had been injured during the incident. Dr. Baxter realized that severely-burned patients required an enormous amount of fluid in the first day of their treatment, particularly during the first 8 hours. It was in 1968 when he began developing the Parkland Formula based on studies he had conducted on animals and later tests on 11 burn patients. The method entailed administering Lactated Ringer’s (LR) at a rate of ml/kg/% burn, administering half the volume during the initial 8 hours and the other half over the following 16 hours, with the urine output being used as a clinical guide. Dr. Baxter would also specify that the plasma is to be administered at 0.3-0.5 ml/kg/% burn over the initial resuscitation’s fourth 8-hour interval; taking note that crystalloid in itself was not adequate enough to remedy the volume shortage. He would eventually report that the application of plasma had been based on research made with animals, and that employing the same process on human subjects did not evince a plasma volume increase superior...
Who Invented Toothpaste?

Who Invented Toothpaste?...

The modern history of toothpaste began in 1892. That was the year Dr. Washington Sheffield of the USA invented the collapsible tube for storing toothpaste. Four years later in 1896, Colgate began making its own brand. The Early Toothpastes The earliest known reference to any mixture for cleaning teeth comes from a 4th century AD Egyptian manuscript. The ingredients included flowers that would be crushed together. Exactly how this was used is unclear. But it is known that the Greeks and Romans used some form of toothpaste. Among the ingredients they used were animal bones and oyster shells. The history of toothpaste also shows that it was available in 9th century Persia. A musician named Ziryab invented a mixture similar to toothpaste. The exact ingredients are still unknown. However it became very popular, especially in Spain. To this day, it’s still uncertain as to how these toothpastes were used. Some Native Americans used neem tree twigs as a toothbrush. Whether these twigs were used by the ancient Europeans is still undetermined. Some historians assert that the early toothpastes were rubbed on the teeth using cloth. Tooth Powder During the 19th century, tooth powders became popular in the UK. They were made from salt or chalk. A look at the history of toothpaste indicates that even charcoal were used as tooth powder. However there were other toothpaste formulas used. Some manuscripts show toothpastes in 18th century America were made from burnt bread. Other toothpastes included resin, alum and cinnamon. Quite possibly an assortment of herbs were employed as well. The Modern Toothpaste Appears In 1900 toothpaste consisting of hydrogen peroxide and baking soda started to be manufactured. However it was not until the outbreak of World War I that Sheffield’s...
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