Who Invented the Hearing Aid?

Who Invented the Hearing Aid?...

No one really knows who invented the first hearing aid device. A study of the history of hearing aids will show that one of the first electric hearing aids was the Akoulathon. This was made by Miller Reese Hutchinson in 1898. Hutchinson’s Invention Hutchinson’s creation was sold in 1901 by the Akaphone Company. The apparatus itself required a carbon transmitter for the hearing aid and telephone. The device was subsequently used to increase the sound. By the 1920’s the transistor took the place of the carbon transmitter. Early History of the Hearing Aid However there were other forms of hearing aid that came out before Hutchinson’s invention. These consisted of trumpets, horns and other similar designs. These devices would later change into transistor radio like devices. During the early history of hearing aids, these devices had to be worn around the body. They were quite heavy and uncomfortable to wear. These early devices were called ear horns or trumpets. They were shaped like funnel cones and worked by concentrating sound into the funnel. These prototypes were later replaced by the bone anchor hearing aid. Different Types of Hearing Aids Since Hutchinson’s invention, hearing aids have assumed various forms and shapes. One of the earliest types was the body worn aid. This was invented by Bells Labs researcher Harvey Fletcher. In the long history of hearing aids, Fletcher is in fact often credited with inventing hearing aids. Fletcher’s invention consisted of an ear mold and a case where the amplifiers were stored. The case and ear mold were linked by a cord. These would soon be replaced by the BTE (behind the ear) aids. These consisted of plastic and set on the pinna. Using air conduction, sound is sent to...
Who Invented Chemotherapy?

Who Invented Chemotherapy?...

Chemotherapy is a very important medical procedure used widely to treat people with severe illnesses, specifically cancer patients. Designed to kill cells, it is guaranteed to have positive effects against cancerous tumors and microorganisms. It affects the cells in hair follicles, digestive tract as well as bone marrow. People who undergo it usually experience hair loss or alopecia, inflammation of the digestive tract lining or mucositis and decreased blood cell production or myelosuppression. Aside from these significant details, it is good to know other important information about it including who invented chemotherapy. The Invention of Chemotherapy Who invented chemotherapy? Based on reports, it was Alfred Gilman and Louis S. Goodman who invented this kind of treatment. In the 1940s, the U.S. Department of Defense hired them to conduct research on the use of nitrogen mustard as therapeutic agent. They found that such chemical warfare agent could actually treat lymphoma. After that, Eli Lilly discovered the effectiveness of Madagascar periwinkle in blocking tumor cell proliferation. In 1965, the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy as cancer treatment was discovered. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Information The use of drugs and chemical substances as medication originated in ancient India, where the people once adhered to the practice referred to as Ayurveda. As part of this practice, people herbs and metals were used widely to treat various types of illnesses. By the 10th century, a Persian physician named Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi started the chemical use for medical purposes. Amongst the items he used were alcohol, bitumen and tar. Likewise, he also used other unconventional materials to treat diseases such as arsenic salts, mercuric salts and copper. Primarily, doctors recommend chemotherapy to patients in order to palliate symptoms or prolong life. This specific kind...
Who Invented the Electronic Cigarette?

Who Invented the Electronic Cigarette?...

Since around the later portion of the 1950s, society started to realize that tobacco cigarettes caused health problems. As research progressed along with increasing numbers of people that developed lung cancer, emphysema, and other smoking related illnesses, cigarette smoking has become less accepted and popular. Unfortunately, the nicotine contained in cigarettes is one of the most addictive substances on the planet and makes quitting smoking one of the hardest things to do. In 2003, Chinese pharmacist, Hon Lik invented the electronic cigarette as a safer, and cleaner way to inhale nicotine after his father, a heavy smoker, passed away from lung cancer attributed to smoking tobacco cigarettes. The Invention of the Electronic Cigarette Hon Lik applied for his first patent on the electronic cigarette in 2003 and subsequently introduced e cigs to the Chinese Market in the following year through his employer, Golden Dragon Holdings. Golden Dragon Holdings later changed the company name to “Ruyan” in order to better match the company’s name (Ruyan means “almost like smoke”) to the new product. Since the renaming, the Ruyan company has continued e cigarette development and grown to be one of the largest global e cig manufacturers. Dr. Sam Han, CEO of Cixi E-CIG Technology, Inc. Ltd. Is also attributed with a number of e cig related inventions to include four patents in the United States and two in China that are electronic cigarette and e-liquid technology related. Similar to Hon Lik, Dr Han was a heavy smoker for more than 40 years before beginning work on electronic cigarette technologies in order to help himself and others make the shift to vapor smoking. Dr. Han continues to market and conduct R&D in e cig related technologies to this date. History of...
Who Invented the Toilet?

Who Invented the Toilet?...

The name Thomas Crapper is bound to come up whenever people discuss who invented the toilet. Sometimes it is given with serious consideration while others only take delight in the pun regarding his name. Thomas Crapper was a sanitary engineer who contributed to the design of the modern day flush toilet. However, it is interesting that there have been toilets in existence even thousands of years ago. Origin from Crete The earliest possible hint we have as to who invented the toilet dates back up to around 4,000 years into the past. There are those who theorize that an unnamed Minoan, which means a local of Crete, is the inventor of today’s toilet. However, an unknown and unnamed Minoan won’t give us who invented the toilet. At least we now know that as early as 2,500 B.C. seated toilets have been in use, which means that such toilets also had a drainage system. John Harrington Next among the theories on who invented the toilet comes John Harrington in the 16th Century. He was quite an unfortunate earl who angered Queen Elizabeth. Part of his works include a translation of Orlando Furioso, which was noted to have been done with both perseverance and skill. In relation to the question of who invented the toilet, Sir John Harrington published The Metamorphosis of Ajax, which is one of a trio of works that was published in succession in 1596. It contained the supposedly very first design of a water closet. Alexander Cumming The origin of the toilet takes another turn as Alexander Cumming comes into the scene. He is the first to patent a flushing device in 1775. His invention was a forerunner of the toilets we use today. Thomas Crapper He...
Who Invented Medicine?

Who Invented Medicine?

The history of medicine began when primitive peoples learned to use plants and herbs to cure their illnesses. There are 25,000 year old drawings in the Lascaux caves in France showing plants being used for healing. These drawings are the earliest evidence of plant medicinal use. Medicine in Ancient Egypt The oldest known Egyptian remedies go back to 3000 BC. As far back as 2750 BC the Egyptians had performed rudimentary forms of surgery. The Edwin Smith papyrus states the Egyptians dealt with illnesses by examination and doing prognosis. It should be noted though that the Edwin Smith papyrus is just one kind. Other papyri showed the Egyptians relying on magic to ward off diseases. Greek and Roman Medicine The history of medicine in Greece was quite advanced. Hippocrates has been termed the father of modern medicine. Hippocrates and his corpus were the ones who first recognized the importance of finger clubbing in detecting lung ailments. Hippocrates also classified illnesses as either chronic, endemic etc. He is also the first doctor to perform chest surgery. But he is probably best known for the Hippocratic Oath, which is still taken by doctors today. The Romans were noted for their surgical instruments. They were the ones who made use of scalpels, surgical needles and specula. They were also instrumental in developing cataract operations. Medicine in the Medieval Age A study of the history of medicine shows that it suffered a decline during ths period. The fall of Rome was followed by economic collapse. Except for a few monasteries, medical knowledge were limited to the few. People relied on superstition and folklore to get rid of ailments. It was only during the Renaissance that interest in medicine was reignited. It began with...
Who Invented the Pacemaker?

Who Invented the Pacemaker?...

The pacemaker was invented by the Canadian John Hopps in 1950. He was an electrical engineer who was doing research on hypothermia. Unlike other inventions, the development and history of the pacemaker is clearly understood. Hopps’ Invention Hopps was an engineer at Manitoba University in 1941 when he went to the National Research Council. He was working with radio frequencies and how it can be used to bring up body temperature. It was then he learned that a heart that stops due to cooling can be restarted. The way to do it was with mechanical or electrical methods. This discovery helped him conceive of the pacemaker. His creation in 1950 though, could not be fitted in the body; it was the external type. Early Researchers Event before Hopps’ invention, there were other researchers who had done some experiments. A study of the history of the pacemaker suggests J A McWilliams was the first. In 1889 he made a report in the British Medical Journal of his experiments. McWilliams said applying electric impulses on the heart led to ventricular contraction. His experiment showed heart beats 70 per minute could be attained by these impulses. This was followed in 1926 by the findings of Dr. Mark Lidwell of Sydney. He invented an apparatus that strongly resembled the pacemaker. In 1932 the American physiologist Albert Hyman devised an instrument which he called the artificial pacemaker. It was the first time the term had been used. However he never continued with his experiments. The History of the Pacemaker after Hopps’ Invention After Hopps’ pacemaker was created, the silicon transistor was invented in 1956. This device helped in reducing the size of the pacemaker. A year later in 1957, Earl Bakken of Minnesota invented...
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