Who Invented String Art?

Who Invented String Art?...

Introduction String art refers to a novel type of design that became popular in the 1960s. It is made up of colored strings bound together to form interesting geometric patterns and shapes. String art has its basis and origin in mathematics. One can design an endless variety of string art works. Invention and History of String Art Everest Boole It is not right to say it was just one person who invented string art. Several brilliant minds helped develop it. The first of them was a remarkable woman named Everest Boole. Boole laws an Englishwoman who lived from 1832 to 1916. She was self-taught in mathematics at a time when ladies weren’t considered very bright. When Boole grew up, she worked in the academic field and married a fellow math expert, George Boole. Boole was an innovative teacher. She was the first to suggest that string art can be used to teach math to children. Boole herself used it to teach geometry. With string art, it was possible to make lines with curves. Paul de Castejau Next was a French mathematician and physicist, Paul de Castejau. He wasn’t the man who invented string art. But he created the algorithm for what would be called Bezier curves. String art is based on Bezier computations. Pierre Bezier The name “Bezier” is familiar to computer graphics artists because of the Bezier curve. Bezier was a well-known inventor, engineer and mathematician. After graduating from the University of Paris, he found a job as an engineer at an automobile company. There Bezier’s math skills were put to the test. He had to find a way to describe each point on a curve to help with manufacture and design. This was long before the time...
Who Invented the Scientific Method?

Who Invented the Scientific Method?...

A study of the history of the scientific method will reveal that it was not invented by one single person. Rather, its development is best defined as the accumulation of knowledge that led to scientific analysis and understanding. The Scientific Method among Ancient Civilizations The first instance of this method being used began with texts indexes. These have been found in many cultures as far back as 2000 BC. The use of empirical methods can be traced back to ancient Egypt. Empirical methods were used by the Egyptians particularly with regards to astronomy and mathematics. This practice was continued by the ancient Greeks. One of the most important figures in the history of the scientific method was Aristotle. In 320 BC, he compiled a series of texts wherein he classified scientific data into several fields. These included biology, zoology, physics, logic, politics and poetry. Around 200 BC, a catalogued library was established in Alexandria in Egypt. Another important event occurred in 800 AD when Muslim scientists started conducting controlled experiments, which would become part and parcel of scientific investigation. In 1265 Roger Bacon redefined the scientific method by using observation, hypothesis and experiments. The Modern Scientific Method Emerges The late 1590s witnessed the invention of the microscope, which was crucial in the history of the scientific method. In 1600, laboratories began to be established. This was followed in 1620 by the publication of Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum. In the book, Bacon proposed a new system for acquiring and verifying scientific data. Another important treatise was Rene Descartes’ Discourse on Method. Along with the works of John Stuart Mill, these individuals were responsible for the basic framework of the scientific method. In 1638, Galileo published Two New Sciences, which aimed...
Who Invented Numbers?

Who Invented Numbers?

Numbers or symbols used for counting have existed since man learned to count. Archeologists and historians estimate that numbers were first used around 32,000 years ago. They base this theory on archeological findings such as bones and rocks with marks on them. These may have been counting or tally signs used to keep track of time or quantities of objects, such as food or livestock. Simple Systems The very first number system must have been a tallying system. Tallying systems have no complex symbols or place values. It is the simplest counting system though not practical for dealing with large quantities of number. Our modern number system has 10 as its base or place value. A place value simplifies number representation and counting. Another simple number system was the ordinal counting system. It is thought to have started when man began counting with his fingers, each finger standing for a unique number. Place Value Systems A couple of ancient civilizations invented number systems with place values. The oldest was the Mayan system with 60 at its base, around 3400 BC. The Egyptians invented a 10 base system in 3100 BC. The modern place value system also has 10 as its compression figure. It came from India by way of the Arabs. Invention of Number Zero The number zero was used by various peoples including the Mayans, Egyptians, Babylonians and Indians. The Egyptians used zero in their accounting records. The Indians referred to zero as “the emptiness.” The inquisitive Greeks were puzzled by this figure and developed many interesting philosophical views on the subject. In fact, occultists and mystics used the number zero to symbolize the nothingness, or void state of things. Invention of Negative Numbers The Chinese invented numbers...
Who Invented the Spiral Notebook?

Who Invented the Spiral Notebook?...

The established facts about spiral notebooks show it was first mentioned in the October 1934 issue of Popular Science. However the magazine did not say who the inventor was. Early accounts also called it the memorandum notebook. The Binding Aside from spiral, there are many types of binding used. These include clasp, pressure, comb and padding. Some manufacturers combine these methods in one notebook. The binding affects the way a notebook is opened and how it is linked to the covers. In spiral notebooks for example, it is possible to remove the pages. In other binding methods you cannot remove the paper without damaging the notebook itself. One of the well known facts about spiral notebooks is that the covers are almost always thicker than the pages inside. The way the pages are held affect the cost of the notebook itself. Most of the time, the spiral types are cheaper. There are hard bound notebooks with a sewn spine. Some notebooks also have perforations that allow a user to take out the page more easily. Other designs allow for the pages to open in a flat manner, but others drape. Variations Some notebooks are fastened by disc or rods, and in these cases, the pages are modified to fit the binding. The ring bound types are fastened together using threads or curved prongs. The disc bound notebooks have teeth that grasp the raised border of each disc. One of the known facts about spiral notebooks is that their pages cannot be rearranged as easily as these other types. Appearance Spiral notebooks have lines on them where one can write on. However those used for drawing don’t have any. Other notebooks have designs on the pages themselves. The covers are...
Who Invented the Quadratic Formula?

Who Invented the Quadratic Formula?...

Solving complicated mathematical problems is done by using complicated formula—like a quadratic equation. Many branches of mathematics and science made major breakthroughs because of it. Thus, many are curious who invented the quadratic formula. The Babylonians One of the earliest and progressive civilizations was the Babylonian civilization. They were known to have used quadratic equations in a limited sense. They developed a crude method of doing this, but with a severe lack of formula usage, especially how to manipulate and transpose equations. So the person who invented the quadratic formula could not have come from them. Brahmagupta An Indian national from Brahma-Sphuta-Siddhanta used negative numbers in solving equations in 628 B.C. or in the 7th century. This mathematician, Brahmagupta, is considered to be the first man who invented the quadratic formula as modern people know it today. However, because his work was not known to mathematicians in Europe in the 19th century, some are of the opinion that he was not the first quadratic formula maker. Bhaskara Bhaskara was another Indian mathematician who dealt with complicated formula with zero-digits. He was acknowledged by mathematicians in Europe in the 12th century, and thus considered by many as the man who invented the quadratic equation. He even incorporated negative roots but cautioned on too much use of the negative value. He said it was inadequate and unacceptable to many. However, since he came later than Brahmagupta did, not all mathematicians agree that he was the first quadratic formula maker. Al-Khwarizm The kingdom of Arabia has a candidate in Al-Khwarizm as far as complex mathematical equations are concerned. He also used these formula earlier than Bhaskara did, using it as early as the 11th century. And furthermore, mathematicians in Europe were aware...
Who Invented Pi?

Who Invented Pi?

Based on historical facts about pi, the Egyptians were the first to discover and use it. The Great Pyramid measured 1760 cubits with a height of 280 cubits. The equation 1760/280 is equal 2 x pi. Note that this is archaeological evidence; there are no specific Egyptian texts that specifically mention pi. An Overview of Pi History The history of the pi is usually divided into three eras. The ancient period was the time it was studied in geometric terms. The classic era took place in 17th Europe following the invention of calculus. The current one is the digital period, where computers are used to analyze and compute the data. The Susa math tablets (c 2000 BC) can shed light on some facts about pi. These were set down in cuneiform and discovered in Shush, Iran. There it is said that the ratio of the circumference of a circle compared to a hexagonal perimeter is 1:0.96. This is taken by some experts as a pi=3.125. Most of the ancient civilizations located an area by multiplying a square of the circumference by 1/12. The Ahmes Papyrus While no Egyptian texts state their use of pi, some math experts suggest otherwise. The Ahmes papyrus (or Rind papyrus) seem to indicate some awareness on their part. It was composed around 1820 BC. It is mostly concerned with problems about locating the circle’s area from the diameter. When studying the facts about pi, it is about multiplying the diameter by 8/9. This is the p/4. From the text in the papyrus, the value is at least p= (256/81) =3.1605. The Moscow Papyrus There is another Egyptian papyrus called the Moscow papyrus (where it is kept). It deals with mathematical problems. One problem is...
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