Who Invented Astrology?

Who Invented Astrology?

The Age of the Early Babylonians If you would check out the historical records of astrology, you would probably see that the people who invented astrology are the Babylonians. This belief is supported by earliest pieces of astrological documents such as the Enuma Anu Enlil. This particular document is said to have been written during the early 1600 B.C., and holds an enumeration of astronomical omens and the respective interpretations for each. Babylonian Astrology was used mainly for prediction of certain events like famine, war, o meteorological circumstances. Aside from that, a main concern was also about the king’s fate. Thus, those who know astrology during that time would be employed by the king, and act as personal advisers. Another piece of history during that time points to around 400 B.C. when this group of people was believed to have started calculating and making a mathematical means to be used in astronomical prediction. Later, this early system, which was recorded on clay tablets, was disseminated to India and the whole of Middle East. The system proved helpful for the Babylonians in their attempts to read natal horoscopes and make their predictions. The Era of Greek Astrology If we are going to talk of the original creators of horoscopic astrology, what would come to mind would be the work of the Greeks. According to history, they get the credit for creating horoscopic astrology that was greatly used for natal horoscopes of people, and for providing answers to certain questions or appropriate actions to take. With the early system introduced by the Babylonians, the Greeks added their own various ideas and concepts. This includes the concepts of various signs in the horoscope as being male or female in nature, and the...
Who Invented Numbers?

Who Invented Numbers?

Numbers or symbols used for counting have existed since man learned to count. Archeologists and historians estimate that numbers were first used around 32,000 years ago. They base this theory on archeological findings such as bones and rocks with marks on them. These may have been counting or tally signs used to keep track of time or quantities of objects, such as food or livestock. Simple Systems The very first number system must have been a tallying system. Tallying systems have no complex symbols or place values. It is the simplest counting system though not practical for dealing with large quantities of number. Our modern number system has 10 as its base or place value. A place value simplifies number representation and counting. Another simple number system was the ordinal counting system. It is thought to have started when man began counting with his fingers, each finger standing for a unique number. Place Value Systems A couple of ancient civilizations invented number systems with place values. The oldest was the Mayan system with 60 at its base, around 3400 BC. The Egyptians invented a 10 base system in 3100 BC. The modern place value system also has 10 as its compression figure. It came from India by way of the Arabs. Invention of Number Zero The number zero was used by various peoples including the Mayans, Egyptians, Babylonians and Indians. The Egyptians used zero in their accounting records. The Indians referred to zero as “the emptiness.” The inquisitive Greeks were puzzled by this figure and developed many interesting philosophical views on the subject. In fact, occultists and mystics used the number zero to symbolize the nothingness, or void state of things. Invention of Negative Numbers The Chinese invented numbers...
Who Invented the Spiral Notebook?

Who Invented the Spiral Notebook?...

The established facts about spiral notebooks show it was first mentioned in the October 1934 issue of Popular Science. However the magazine did not say who the inventor was. Early accounts also called it the memorandum notebook. The Binding Aside from spiral, there are many types of binding used. These include clasp, pressure, comb and padding. Some manufacturers combine these methods in one notebook. The binding affects the way a notebook is opened and how it is linked to the covers. In spiral notebooks for example, it is possible to remove the pages. In other binding methods you cannot remove the paper without damaging the notebook itself. One of the well known facts about spiral notebooks is that the covers are almost always thicker than the pages inside. The way the pages are held affect the cost of the notebook itself. Most of the time, the spiral types are cheaper. There are hard bound notebooks with a sewn spine. Some notebooks also have perforations that allow a user to take out the page more easily. Other designs allow for the pages to open in a flat manner, but others drape. Variations Some notebooks are fastened by disc or rods, and in these cases, the pages are modified to fit the binding. The ring bound types are fastened together using threads or curved prongs. The disc bound notebooks have teeth that grasp the raised border of each disc. One of the known facts about spiral notebooks is that their pages cannot be rearranged as easily as these other types. Appearance Spiral notebooks have lines on them where one can write on. However those used for drawing don’t have any. Other notebooks have designs on the pages themselves. The covers are...
Who Invented Chalk?

Who Invented Chalk?

Your first encounter with chalk might have been in the classroom where you often see your teachers use them to write on a chalkboard. The most familiar form of chalk a lot of people have come familiar with is made of slender sticks around a quarter of an inch thick and about three inches long. You might even have come to wonder who invented chalk. Who Invented Chalk It might come as a disappointment to find out that no one can tell who invented chalk. Chalk is readily found in nature and has been used as a tool for drawing and writing for quite a long time. Drawings that date even to the prehistoric times have been discovered by archaeologists. The earliest chalk writings/drawings have been found in caves. As time went by artists from various countries used chalk to make drawings and sketches. Their work was protected using shellac or any comparable substance. For the convenience of these artists, a major innovation was introduced – chalks shaped into sticks. Even though chalk artists can’t be credited as the ones who invented chalk, their need introduced an innovation that would last for centuries. Making Chalk In the same way we don’t know who invented chalk, we also don’t know who invented the method to make chalk into sticks. What we know is that the method starts by grinding natural chalk into a very fine powdery form. Water is then added along with clay and various color pigments depending on what color of chalk you want to make. The clay actually acts as a binder of some sort. The mixture will initially look something like putty that would be rolled and shaped into cylinders and then would be left to...
Who Invented Pi?

Who Invented Pi?

Based on historical facts about pi, the Egyptians were the first to discover and use it. The Great Pyramid measured 1760 cubits with a height of 280 cubits. The equation 1760/280 is equal 2 x pi. Note that this is archaeological evidence; there are no specific Egyptian texts that specifically mention pi. An Overview of Pi History The history of the pi is usually divided into three eras. The ancient period was the time it was studied in geometric terms. The classic era took place in 17th Europe following the invention of calculus. The current one is the digital period, where computers are used to analyze and compute the data. The Susa math tablets (c 2000 BC) can shed light on some facts about pi. These were set down in cuneiform and discovered in Shush, Iran. There it is said that the ratio of the circumference of a circle compared to a hexagonal perimeter is 1:0.96. This is taken by some experts as a pi=3.125. Most of the ancient civilizations located an area by multiplying a square of the circumference by 1/12. The Ahmes Papyrus While no Egyptian texts state their use of pi, some math experts suggest otherwise. The Ahmes papyrus (or Rind papyrus) seem to indicate some awareness on their part. It was composed around 1820 BC. It is mostly concerned with problems about locating the circle’s area from the diameter. When studying the facts about pi, it is about multiplying the diameter by 8/9. This is the p/4. From the text in the papyrus, the value is at least p= (256/81) =3.1605. The Moscow Papyrus There is another Egyptian papyrus called the Moscow papyrus (where it is kept). It deals with mathematical problems. One problem is...
Who Invented School?

Who Invented School?

A lot of people hate school. But lots more love it. It’s been around providing educational foundation for people. Both lovers and haters of it probably wonder who invented school. Or who started the idea of school? Byzantines or Hellenists? There are some suggested answers on the Internet, but they are far from being accurate about who invented school in particular. Most of them point to the Byzantines. They were said to be the first people on earth to come up with the idea of a school system. These people continued the Roman Empire in the Middle Ages. They were heavily influenced by the Greeks, especially in language. The Greeks were so dedicated in seeking knowledge. They had been known for this long before the Byzantines thought of a school system. Thus, some say they were the ones who invented school. But what Greeks had was a form of discipleship, not a school. There was an itinerant teacher with disciples. They traveled to places. They seldom met in permanent places. They conducted lectures in different locations and some local folks sometimes joined in to listen. There was no formality. So they were not the ones who started the idea of school. The Byzantines liked the Greek idea of teaching a following, but they preferred to have it in an enclosed permanent area and with a system. The Greek philosophers and their disciples talked about anything randomly under the sun. They often sought meaning in life. The Byzantines wanted more specific subjects dealt with at a time. Like Mathematics, Language, Philosophy, Religion, History, and the like. Thus, they’re considered the people who invented school. Who’s Horace Mann? To give a specific name to answer who invented school, some mention Horace...
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