Who Invented Chalk?

Who Invented Chalk?

Your first encounter with chalk might have been in the classroom where you often see your teachers use them to write on a chalkboard. The most familiar form of chalk a lot of people have come familiar with is made of slender sticks around a quarter of an inch thick and about three inches long. You might even have come to wonder who invented chalk. Who Invented Chalk It might come as a disappointment to find out that no one can tell who invented chalk. Chalk is readily found in nature and has been used as a tool for drawing and writing for quite a long time. Drawings that date even to the prehistoric times have been discovered by archaeologists. The earliest chalk writings/drawings have been found in caves. As time went by artists from various countries used chalk to make drawings and sketches. Their work was protected using shellac or any comparable substance. For the convenience of these artists, a major innovation was introduced – chalks shaped into sticks. Even though chalk artists can’t be credited as the ones who invented chalk, their need introduced an innovation that would last for centuries. Making Chalk In the same way we don’t know who invented chalk, we also don’t know who invented the method to make chalk into sticks. What we know is that the method starts by grinding natural chalk into a very fine powdery form. Water is then added along with clay and various color pigments depending on what color of chalk you want to make. The clay actually acts as a binder of some sort. The mixture will initially look something like putty that would be rolled and shaped into cylinders and then would be left to...
Who Invented the Spiral Notebook?

Who Invented the Spiral Notebook?...

The established facts about spiral notebooks show it was first mentioned in the October 1934 issue of Popular Science. However the magazine did not say who the inventor was. Early accounts also called it the memorandum notebook. The Binding Aside from spiral, there are many types of binding used. These include clasp, pressure, comb and padding. Some manufacturers combine these methods in one notebook. The binding affects the way a notebook is opened and how it is linked to the covers. In spiral notebooks for example, it is possible to remove the pages. In other binding methods you cannot remove the paper without damaging the notebook itself. One of the well known facts about spiral notebooks is that the covers are almost always thicker than the pages inside. The way the pages are held affect the cost of the notebook itself. Most of the time, the spiral types are cheaper. There are hard bound notebooks with a sewn spine. Some notebooks also have perforations that allow a user to take out the page more easily. Other designs allow for the pages to open in a flat manner, but others drape. Variations Some notebooks are fastened by disc or rods, and in these cases, the pages are modified to fit the binding. The ring bound types are fastened together using threads or curved prongs. The disc bound notebooks have teeth that grasp the raised border of each disc. One of the known facts about spiral notebooks is that their pages cannot be rearranged as easily as these other types. Appearance Spiral notebooks have lines on them where one can write on. However those used for drawing don’t have any. Other notebooks have designs on the pages themselves. The covers are...
Who Invented String Art?

Who Invented String Art?...

Introduction String art refers to a novel type of design that became popular in the 1960s. It is made up of colored strings bound together to form interesting geometric patterns and shapes. String art has its basis and origin in mathematics. One can design an endless variety of string art works. Invention and History of String Art Everest Boole It is not right to say it was just one person who invented string art. Several brilliant minds helped develop it. The first of them was a remarkable woman named Everest Boole. Boole laws an Englishwoman who lived from 1832 to 1916. She was self-taught in mathematics at a time when ladies weren’t considered very bright. When Boole grew up, she worked in the academic field and married a fellow math expert, George Boole. Boole was an innovative teacher. She was the first to suggest that string art can be used to teach math to children. Boole herself used it to teach geometry. With string art, it was possible to make lines with curves. Paul de Castejau Next was a French mathematician and physicist, Paul de Castejau. He wasn’t the man who invented string art. But he created the algorithm for what would be called Bezier curves. String art is based on Bezier computations. Pierre Bezier The name “Bezier” is familiar to computer graphics artists because of the Bezier curve. Bezier was a well-known inventor, engineer and mathematician. After graduating from the University of Paris, he found a job as an engineer at an automobile company. There Bezier’s math skills were put to the test. He had to find a way to describe each point on a curve to help with manufacture and design. This was long before the time...
Who Invented Boolean Logic?

Who Invented Boolean Logic?...

The Boolean logic (also known as Boolean algebra) is an efficient logic operations system that is very useful in studying various fields like computer science, electronics and digital electronics. The system became more popular when Claude Shannon used electric circuits and relays as an analogy for the Boolean algebra. Before we proceed with the applications of the system in search engine queries, database and digital electronic circuit design, it is best to know the person behind the invention of the Boolean logic. Historical Background of the System Who invented Boolean logic? Mathematician George Boole invented the logic operations system in the mid 1800s. He incorporated logic to the basic concepts of mathematics and determined the base information of Boolean algebra. His invention of the system was published in the paper that he released in 1847 entitled “The Mathematical Analysis of Logic.” The system played an essential role in the development of binary system by Claude Shannon, which became significant to computer science. Additional Information and Other Important Details There are three operators that are significant to the logic operations system, which are the ‘and,’ ‘or’ and not. The first operator is defined by the dot symbol. On the other hand, the second operator is defined by the plus sign. Finally, the third operator is defined by A with a line on top of the letter. In addition to operators, Boolean logic has properties that are similar with the usual set logic. Some of the properties associated with this logic operations system are associativity, commutativity, absorption and distributivity. The other properties of the system are complements, idempotency, boundedness, 0 and 1 are complements, de Morgan’s laws as well as involution. This special operations system is widely used in the field...
Who Invented Numbers?

Who Invented Numbers?

Numbers or symbols used for counting have existed since man learned to count. Archeologists and historians estimate that numbers were first used around 32,000 years ago. They base this theory on archeological findings such as bones and rocks with marks on them. These may have been counting or tally signs used to keep track of time or quantities of objects, such as food or livestock. Simple Systems The very first number system must have been a tallying system. Tallying systems have no complex symbols or place values. It is the simplest counting system though not practical for dealing with large quantities of number. Our modern number system has 10 as its base or place value. A place value simplifies number representation and counting. Another simple number system was the ordinal counting system. It is thought to have started when man began counting with his fingers, each finger standing for a unique number. Place Value Systems A couple of ancient civilizations invented number systems with place values. The oldest was the Mayan system with 60 at its base, around 3400 BC. The Egyptians invented a 10 base system in 3100 BC. The modern place value system also has 10 as its compression figure. It came from India by way of the Arabs. Invention of Number Zero The number zero was used by various peoples including the Mayans, Egyptians, Babylonians and Indians. The Egyptians used zero in their accounting records. The Indians referred to zero as “the emptiness.” The inquisitive Greeks were puzzled by this figure and developed many interesting philosophical views on the subject. In fact, occultists and mystics used the number zero to symbolize the nothingness, or void state of things. Invention of Negative Numbers The Chinese invented numbers...
Who Invented the Distance Formula?

Who Invented the Distance Formula?...

The man who invented the distance formula must have been amazed by distances. And why not? He was a traveler. He was a scientist and a philosopher always seeking the meaning in life. Aside from being educated in Greece, the distance formula inventor traveled other parts of the world to learn from other civilizations. Pythagoras Many acknowledge that Pythagoras was the person who invented the distance formula. He was from Samos and born around 570 B.C. He traveled not just to Egypt and Babylon, but also to Arabia, Phoenicia, Judea, and India. He did this in search of knowledge. According to records, he was much amazed by what knowledge was available in Egypt. He was also fond of experimenting with numbers and later on ended up being the distance formula inventor. Pythagorean Theorem Vertical, horizontal, or diagonal distance can be solved using Pythagoras distance formula, or what is called “Pythagorean theorem.” The man who invented the distance formula based this on the dimensions of a right triangle or a 90 degree triangle. This triangle has three sides—the base, the height, and the hypotenuse, which is the diagonal side. If 2 sides have known dimensions the third unknown can be solved. Thus, to solve the distance from one point to a standing structure, and the dimensions for the structure height and the hypotenuse are given, the distance can be calculated. The formula for this is C squared is equal to A squared plus B squared. According to the distance formula inventor, C is the value for the base, A is the value for the height, and B is the value for the hypotenuse side. The man who invented the distance formula figured any unknown value of this equation can be...
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