Who Invented the Internet?

Who Invented the Internet?...

The Internet was not created by a single individual. If you assess the history of the Internet, it will reveal that it was the product of different ideas and concepts that merged together. Origin of the Internet The basic ideas for the Internet came in 1957. The US Defense Department created the ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency). Its purpose was to produce technologies that the military could use. In the 1960s ARPA and MIT (Massachusetts institute of technology) corroborated to share information and technology. They would do this by joining networks using phones. In 1966, Larry Roberts (from the MIT) introduced the ARPANET, which consisted of computers linked over long distances. The history of the Internet was also affected by packet switching, a technology that allowed for faster and cost effective data transmissions. In 1969, universities were allowed to be a part of the network nodes. UCLA and Standard were among the early ones. By 1971, several more universities were included. By 1973, ARPANET had also established a node in London, England. The 1970s Several milestones were attained in the 1970s. TCP (Transmission Control Program) was developed and made data transfer easier. Unix was also developed in 1976 and the same year email was used for the first time by the Queen of England. The history of the Internet in the 70s was also marked by the birth of USENET. This would be the model upon which all discussion groups and forums would be modeled. The 1980s and 1990s The development of the TCP/IP (Transmission Protocol and Internet Protocol) in 1982 is one of the earliest references to the word Internet itself. In 1985 symbolics.com became the initial domain name to be registered. It was in 1988 that the...
Who Invented the Mouse?

Who Invented the Mouse?

The origin and history of the mouse began in 1964. That was the year Douglas Engelbart invented the first mouse prototype. He actually started working on the device the year before. He got the patent in 1970. The First Mouse In 1964, Engelbart showed the mouse to his colleagues at STI (Stanford Research Institute) and how the device was used. He utilized it on a computer with a graphical user interface (GUI). His prototype mouse had a wooden shell. It also came with a couple of wheels which helped it move around. When Engelbart applied for the patent, he called it the “X Y position indicator for a display system”. But the history of the mouse shows that the name was used early on. According to Engelbart he called it the mouse because the shape and tail made it look like one. Note: the GUI and windows that Engelbart used were also his inventions. But he couldn’t patent them because computer program patents weren’t available yet. Innovations in Mouse Design In 1972 Bill English (who helped Engelbart make the mouse) created the ball mouse. English was working at Xerox at the time and his invention became part of the Xerox Alto computer. The ball mouse was easier to use than the wheeled mouse. Unlike the latter, the device could be moved in any direction with ease. In the history of the mouse, this innovation is considered as one of the major ones. Over time, the ball mouse became the most popular version of the device. By the 1980s and the 1990s, the ball had become a standard feature in almost all mice sold. Based on English’s design, other types of ball mice emerged. Among the innovators and inventors were...
Who Invented Email?

Who Invented Email?

The history of email began with Ray Tomlinson in 1971. The program was created while he was working for the US government, specifically ARPANET (the future Internet). Tomlinson’s Work Tomlinson was working for the United States Defense Department in 1968. He was a computer engineer at the time. He started by developing an application called SNDMSG. Its purpose was to let ARPANET users relay messages. Originally, SNDMSG was local. That is, the messages could be sent only to users of that same computer. Tomlinson used the CYPNET (a transfer protocol) on the SNDMSG application. This allowed SNDMSG to send and receive email to any computer within the ARPANET network. This was how the history of email began. The First Email Message Tomlinson utilized the @ symbol for a simple reason: it would enable him to know which individual was at the system. Back them, the @ was inserted between the computer host and the user name. The first email Tomlinson sent was QWERTYUIOP. Early Use of Email Following Tomlinson’s invention, the service started to be used in the ARPANET. It was connected to the FTP (File Transfer Protocol). The FTP would eventually be replaced by the SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). FTP is still sometimes used today when downloading files off the World Wide Web. However it is important to note that email is much older than the Internet. Email was being used at ARPANET in the 1970s, long before the Net came into being. Other Email Prototypes The history of email shows that MIT had already demonstrated its potential back in 1961 with Compatible Time Sharing System (CTSS). This technology permitted users to gather and share files online. The other prototypes permitted communication on the mainframe. However it...
Who Invented the Computer Mouse?

Who Invented the Computer Mouse?...

The mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1965 while working at the Stanford Research Institute. He was also helped by his colleague Bill English. The history of the computer mouse shows he never profited from it. The patent had expired long before the device came into wide usage. Early Prototypes Before Engelbart developed the mouse, the trackball had already been invented. In 1954, the Canadian Navy created the device for utilization on the DATAR system. The mouse Engelbart made was large and had two wheels. Although he invented the mouse in 1965, he only patented it in 1970. He called the device an XY Position Indicator for a Display System. The basic idea was actually inspired by the telautograph which was designed back in the 19th century. A couple of years later (1972) Bill English created the ball mouse. This was an improvement from the original and marked a significant point in the history of the computer mouse. Unlike the mouse with wheels, the ball allowed the mouse to move in any direction. The device was included in the Xerox computer where English was working at the time. Other Mouse Types In 1975, another type of ball mouse was created by Jack Hawley also while working at Xerox. Honeywell later produced a wheeled mouse which moved along its axes. However it was in the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne that the standard mouse appeared. The project was headed by André Guignard and Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud. Their design would change the history of the computer mouse. They changed the rubber ball so that it became harder and more stable. They also increased the buttons to three. This would remain the standard until the mid 1990s when the third button...
Who Invented Video Games?

Who Invented Video Games?...

No single individual can be credited with creating the first video game. But as this brief history of video games will show, several people played a prominent role in its growth and expansion. The Earliest Video Games The records show that in 1952, A.S. Douglas developed a graphical computer game. The game was Tic Tac Toe and it was created on the EDSAC vacuum tube computer. However it isn’t generally considered to be a video game. The first real video game is said to be William Higinbotham’s Tennis for Two. This game came out in 1958. The next innovation came in 1962 when Steve Russell came out with Spacewar! The game was played on a MIT PDP-1 mainframe computer. The history of video games would change in 1967 when Ralph Baer created a game called Chase. It was the first game to be played on a TV screen. The 1970s Arcade Games Several important developments took place in the 1970s. Nolan Bushnell and his associate Ted Dabney came out with Computer Space, and the video arcade was born. In 1972 the game Pong came out (Pong is often erroneously referred to as the first video game). Later that year Bushnell and Dabney would team up again and form Atari Computers. It was also in 1972 a home video game console became available. It was produced by Magnavox. Called the Odyssey, it came with a dozen games. Four years later, the Fairchild Video Entrainment System appeared. A study of the history of video games will show that a lot of the classic games came out during the 1970s. Following the success of Atari, Space Invaders came out in 1978, and was also well received. In 1979, colors began to be...
Who Invented the World Wide Web?

Who Invented the World Wide Web?...

The Web as we know it today was invented by Tim Berners Lee and Robert Cailliau. In 1989 they proposed a hypertext database for sharing information. In 1990 they created the basic Web system and the browser. The following is an overview of the history of the World Wide Web. Why the Web was Invented Lee was working for CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in the 1980s. He was looking for a way for physicists and scientists to share data. He wanted to device a system that would make data sharing easy regardless of machine or application being used. He decided to call the system the World Wide Web. Together with Cailliau, Lee developed the basic features of the Web. These included the HTTP (hypertext markup protocol), HTML (hypertext markup language) and a browser. The browser had FTP and newsgroup capabilities built in. In 1992 a browser called Erwise was developed which supported graphics. However the Web was still used mainly for scientific research. Growth and Expansion The pivotal point in the history of the World Wide Web took place in 1993 when the Mosaic browser appeared. It was invented by the NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications). It supported pictures, text and other media. This led to widespread support. This was followed by the release of Cello, the first Web browser for Windows. It came out in 1993. In 1994, Marc Andreessen (Mosaic inventor) and James Clark decided to market Mosaic. They altered the name to Netscape Navigator that year. Netscape would prove enormously popular. The browser not only supported text and graphics but it also supported third party plug ins for sound and animation. Eventually Netscape would include other advanced scripting capabilities as well. Netscape’s success...
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