Who Invented Email?

Who Invented Email?

The history of email began with Ray Tomlinson in 1971. The program was created while he was working for the US government, specifically ARPANET (the future Internet). Tomlinson’s Work Tomlinson was working for the United States Defense Department in 1968. He was a computer engineer at the time. He started by developing an application called SNDMSG. Its purpose was to let ARPANET users relay messages. Originally, SNDMSG was local. That is, the messages could be sent only to users of that same computer. Tomlinson used the CYPNET (a transfer protocol) on the SNDMSG application. This allowed SNDMSG to send and receive email to any computer within the ARPANET network. This was how the history of email began. The First Email Message Tomlinson utilized the @ symbol for a simple reason: it would enable him to know which individual was at the system. Back them, the @ was inserted between the computer host and the user name. The first email Tomlinson sent was QWERTYUIOP. Early Use of Email Following Tomlinson’s invention, the service started to be used in the ARPANET. It was connected to the FTP (File Transfer Protocol). The FTP would eventually be replaced by the SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). FTP is still sometimes used today when downloading files off the World Wide Web. However it is important to note that email is much older than the Internet. Email was being used at ARPANET in the 1970s, long before the Net came into being. Other Email Prototypes The history of email shows that MIT had already demonstrated its potential back in 1961 with Compatible Time Sharing System (CTSS). This technology permitted users to gather and share files online. The other prototypes permitted communication on the mainframe. However it...
Who Invented the Computer Mouse?

Who Invented the Computer Mouse?...

The mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1965 while working at the Stanford Research Institute. He was also helped by his colleague Bill English. The history of the computer mouse shows he never profited from it. The patent had expired long before the device came into wide usage. Early Prototypes Before Engelbart developed the mouse, the trackball had already been invented. In 1954, the Canadian Navy created the device for utilization on the DATAR system. The mouse Engelbart made was large and had two wheels. Although he invented the mouse in 1965, he only patented it in 1970. He called the device an XY Position Indicator for a Display System. The basic idea was actually inspired by the telautograph which was designed back in the 19th century. A couple of years later (1972) Bill English created the ball mouse. This was an improvement from the original and marked a significant point in the history of the computer mouse. Unlike the mouse with wheels, the ball allowed the mouse to move in any direction. The device was included in the Xerox computer where English was working at the time. Other Mouse Types In 1975, another type of ball mouse was created by Jack Hawley also while working at Xerox. Honeywell later produced a wheeled mouse which moved along its axes. However it was in the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne that the standard mouse appeared. The project was headed by André Guignard and Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud. Their design would change the history of the computer mouse. They changed the rubber ball so that it became harder and more stable. They also increased the buttons to three. This would remain the standard until the mid 1990s when the third button...
Who Invented Video Games?

Who Invented Video Games?...

No single individual can be credited with creating the first video game. But as this brief history of video games will show, several people played a prominent role in its growth and expansion. The Earliest Video Games The records show that in 1952, A.S. Douglas developed a graphical computer game. The game was Tic Tac Toe and it was created on the EDSAC vacuum tube computer. However it isn’t generally considered to be a video game. The first real video game is said to be William Higinbotham’s Tennis for Two. This game came out in 1958. The next innovation came in 1962 when Steve Russell came out with Spacewar! The game was played on a MIT PDP-1 mainframe computer. The history of video games would change in 1967 when Ralph Baer created a game called Chase. It was the first game to be played on a TV screen. The 1970s Arcade Games Several important developments took place in the 1970s. Nolan Bushnell and his associate Ted Dabney came out with Computer Space, and the video arcade was born. In 1972 the game Pong came out (Pong is often erroneously referred to as the first video game). Later that year Bushnell and Dabney would team up again and form Atari Computers. It was also in 1972 a home video game console became available. It was produced by Magnavox. Called the Odyssey, it came with a dozen games. Four years later, the Fairchild Video Entrainment System appeared. A study of the history of video games will show that a lot of the classic games came out during the 1970s. Following the success of Atari, Space Invaders came out in 1978, and was also well received. In 1979, colors began to be...
Who Invented the World Wide Web?

Who Invented the World Wide Web?...

The Web as we know it today was invented by Tim Berners Lee and Robert Cailliau. In 1989 they proposed a hypertext database for sharing information. In 1990 they created the basic Web system and the browser. The following is an overview of the history of the World Wide Web. Why the Web was Invented Lee was working for CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in the 1980s. He was looking for a way for physicists and scientists to share data. He wanted to device a system that would make data sharing easy regardless of machine or application being used. He decided to call the system the World Wide Web. Together with Cailliau, Lee developed the basic features of the Web. These included the HTTP (hypertext markup protocol), HTML (hypertext markup language) and a browser. The browser had FTP and newsgroup capabilities built in. In 1992 a browser called Erwise was developed which supported graphics. However the Web was still used mainly for scientific research. Growth and Expansion The pivotal point in the history of the World Wide Web took place in 1993 when the Mosaic browser appeared. It was invented by the NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications). It supported pictures, text and other media. This led to widespread support. This was followed by the release of Cello, the first Web browser for Windows. It came out in 1993. In 1994, Marc Andreessen (Mosaic inventor) and James Clark decided to market Mosaic. They altered the name to Netscape Navigator that year. Netscape would prove enormously popular. The browser not only supported text and graphics but it also supported third party plug ins for sound and animation. Eventually Netscape would include other advanced scripting capabilities as well. Netscape’s success...
Who Invented Google?

Who Invented Google?

Google is one of the most popular and widely used search engines today. The company that developed the website is earning big profits from online mapping, e-mail messaging, social networking, video sharing, Internet search as well as office productivity. To help people from the different parts of the world have access to world’s information, Google Inc. also created a reliable mobile operating system and an efficient open source web browser. To know more about the success attained by the company, it is best to identify the people who contributed to the invention of the famous search engine. History of Google Who invented Google? Sergey Brin and Larry Page invented Google as a special project when they were students of Ph. D. at Stanford University in January 1996. The primary function of the search engine was to develop an efficient digital library for the students of the university. The project was funded and supported by the Graduate Fellowship of the National Science Foundation. To create the search engine, Page and Brin developed a very useful computer language known as the PageRank algorithm. The original domain name of the program created by the inventors is google.stanford.edu. It was only changed to google.com when they register the website on September 15, 1997. The inventors of the search engine established the company Google Inc. on September 4, 1998. After a year, the company relocated its offices to 165 University Avenue at Palo Alto. At first, the company only leased several buildings for the business operations. In 2006, the company purchased the properties for $319 million. Additional Information and Other Important Details To enhance the revenues of the company, Google Inc. started offering different advertisements related to search keywords in 2000. To keep the...
Who Invented the MP3 Format?

Who Invented the MP3 Format?...

The mp3 format was invented by the MPEG Group in 1991. The history of the mp3 format indicates several people worked on the project but the accredited inventors were Ernst Eberlein, Thomas Sporer, Karhl Heinz Brandenburg, Bern Grill and Bernd Kurten. Development Mp3 was the offshoot of OCF and PXFM. Those who worked on the project were mainly focused on how people were able to hear music. Through the course of their work, the Fraunhofer Society (which became part of the MPEG group) started looking for ways for music to be compressed and yet maintain its high quality. After working on it for several yeas, the standards were implemented in 1991. Further refinements would follow and it was integrated with MPEG 2 which came out in 1994. Release to the Public A study of the history of the mp3 format will reveal the Fraunhofer Society produced the encoder on July 7, 1994. A few months after its release, an mp3 player called Winplay 3 was released as well. Unlike other music formats, Mp3 offered a lot of advantages. The first was its small size. Using the 128 bit compression, a 5 minute song only came in at about 5 MB. This was a huge improvement over the WAV formats whose size was ten times that. In addition, the quality was very high, almost CD like. This became possible due to limitations in hearing. Mp3 removed the bits in the sound file that people wouldn’t be able to hear. By taking out these extraneous pieces, the size was reduced without sacrificing the sound quality. Popularity and Widespread Use Through the 1990s, the history of the mp3 format shows the tremendous impact it made on the Net. The release of Winamp...
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