Who Invented Giving Someone the Finger?

Who Invented Giving Someone the Finger?...

We tend to take it for granted that the act of giving someone the finger is a contemporary obscene hand gesture. The strange fact of it is that this non-verbal way of telling people to “stick it where the sun don’t shine” has been practiced ever since ancient times! The name of the actual person who invented giving someone the finger may well be lost to the mists of time. But believe it or not, this offensive gesticulation has been named in ancient Roman texts as the “digitus impudicus” or “impudent finger,” and ancient Greek comedy has used the act of raising one’s middle finger as an insult. This is particularly mentioned in the comedy “The Clouds” by the Greek playwright Aristophanes. Even weirder is the superstitious belief in the first-century Mediterranean world wherein the middle finger is not an insulting gesture, but as a means of warding off the effects of a much more ominous hand signal, the “evil eye.” Giving someone the finger may well be the universally-recognized symbol of disrespect used as far across the globe as countries like India, Pakistan and other South Asian nations. But other cultures have also had their own variations on this vulgar act. For instance, the British version of the finger is to raise two, the middle and the index finger. The origins of this variant is actually not so much obscene, though still meant as an insult. This was back in medieval times when Britain was at war with France. Captured British archers would be punished by having their middle and index fingers cut off so that wouldn’t be able to pull the strings of their bows. So archers who’ve managed to evade capture would taunt their foes by...
Who Invented Football?

Who Invented Football?

Football is a highly competitive team sport that is very popular in places like Canada and the U.S. In the United States, two professional leagues are responsible for the ongoing success of the game, namely the United Football League and the National Football League. In addition, it is played in two different levels, namely collegiate and professional. Aside from knowing the varying rules and other interesting aspects of the sport, it is also good to know its history including who invented football. The Invention of Football Who invented football? With games like rugby and association football or soccer considered as the major roots of the game, Walter Camp was credited as the inventor and father of American football. The reason for this is that he was a major factor in shaping the basic rules and other important fundamental aspects of the sport, which separated it completely from other sports of similar nature. These rules and aspects gave the game its identity. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Information Besides Canada and the U.S., the game of football continues to grow in other locations including Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom. Likewise, the game is also being played widely in countries such as Spain, Israel, Mexico, Sweden and various Pacific Island nations. As the father of the game, Camp introduced various important fundamental aspects of the sport. Among them were the points system, system of downs and the snap-back from center. Furthermore, he is also credited for the standard offensive positioning of players. Likewise, he also introduced the concept of ‘safety,’ which is one of the important parts of the sport. In this game, there are numerous circumstances when change of possession is possible. These include the failure of teams to...
Who Invented the Personal Computer?

Who Invented the Personal Computer?...

When you study the history of the personal computer, the records will show that Ed Roberts was the first to use the term. He used it to describe his invention, the Altiair 8800 which appeared in 1975. However some experts believe the Kenback- 1 (made in 1971) was the first PC although the term was not used to describe it. The Earliest Computers Before the term personal computer was used, machines that could be operated by a single individual were called microcomputers. These machines became widespread when the microprocessor was invented in the 1970s. But as far back as 1968, STI researcher Douglas Englebart (inventor of the mouse) had demonstrated the use of a mouse, video and typing on computers. In the history of the personal computer, this event has come to be known as the mother of all demos. But during the 70s, computers were available only in electronic shops. Most of them made use of switches and panels. The keyboards and disks had to be purchased separately. The Micral is regarded as the first non assembly, commercially available computer. It used the Intel 8008 processor. It came out in 1973. The Apple II and IBM PCs In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak produced the Apple Computer. A hit, they followed it up with the Apple II. Its success was the turning point in the history of the personal computer. Computers were now sold as complete packages. Software for business and education also started coming out. Word processors, spreadsheets and games were also beginning to appear. Apple’s success inspired IBM to do the same thing. The company went on to make computers using an open bus and open architecture system. This design would ensure that software developers...
Who Invented the IMAX?

Who Invented the IMAX?

Completely referred to as Image MAXimum but better known as IMAX, this film format is a projection standard and movie format developed by IMAX Corp. of Canada. It offers a number of advantages including higher picture resolution as well as greater size compared to conventional film systems. The size of the screen usually varies, but the basic measurement for this format is usually 53 feet or 16.1 meters high and 72 feet or 22 meters wide. Aside from these interesting details, there are other nice things to learn about it including who invented the IMAX. The Invention of the IMAX System Who invented the IMAX? A number of people developed the IMAX system, namely William C. Shaw, Nicholas Mulders, Roman Kroiter and Graeme Ferguson. Before that, there were numerous attempts to improve the visual impact of movies. The very first one was in 1929, when Fox developed the 70mm format called Fox Grandeur. After that, many efforts soon followed including the VistaVision in 1954 and the CinemaScope in 1953. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Details The very first IMAX film was entitled “Tiger Child,” which became part of Expo ’70 that was held in Osaka, Japan. In 1971, the IMAX system was installed permanently at the amusement entertainment park called Ontario Place in Toronto. In the United States, a huge IMAX screen was used at the Expo ’74 in Spokane, Washington. In 1973, a permanent IMAX Dome was installed at the Reuben H. Fleet Space Theater and Science Center within Balboa Park in San Diego California. Meanwhile, a permanent IMAX 3D theater was featured at Expo ’86 held in Vancouver, British Columbia. Today, there are numerous IMAX systems installed all throughout the world. Some of these include the IMAX...
Who Invented the Quadratic Formula?

Who Invented the Quadratic Formula?...

Solving complicated mathematical problems is done by using complicated formula—like a quadratic equation. Many branches of mathematics and science made major breakthroughs because of it. Thus, many are curious who invented the quadratic formula. The Babylonians One of the earliest and progressive civilizations was the Babylonian civilization. They were known to have used quadratic equations in a limited sense. They developed a crude method of doing this, but with a severe lack of formula usage, especially how to manipulate and transpose equations. So the person who invented the quadratic formula could not have come from them. Brahmagupta An Indian national from Brahma-Sphuta-Siddhanta used negative numbers in solving equations in 628 B.C. or in the 7th century. This mathematician, Brahmagupta, is considered to be the first man who invented the quadratic formula as modern people know it today. However, because his work was not known to mathematicians in Europe in the 19th century, some are of the opinion that he was not the first quadratic formula maker. Bhaskara Bhaskara was another Indian mathematician who dealt with complicated formula with zero-digits. He was acknowledged by mathematicians in Europe in the 12th century, and thus considered by many as the man who invented the quadratic equation. He even incorporated negative roots but cautioned on too much use of the negative value. He said it was inadequate and unacceptable to many. However, since he came later than Brahmagupta did, not all mathematicians agree that he was the first quadratic formula maker. Al-Khwarizm The kingdom of Arabia has a candidate in Al-Khwarizm as far as complex mathematical equations are concerned. He also used these formula earlier than Bhaskara did, using it as early as the 11th century. And furthermore, mathematicians in Europe were aware...
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