Who Invented Ice Skating?

Who Invented Ice Skating?...

The history of ice skating began 4,000 years ago in Finland. The earliest skates were strapped on the feet and people glided along. Who invented it, and for what purpose is unknown. Its later history, however, is well known. Evolution of the Ice Skates It was around the 13th century when steel blades were incorporated into the skates. This allowed the skate to cut through the ice. Some historians in fact assert that its proper history started in 14th century Europe. Aside from the steel blades, the lower parts were sharpened. It’s still not clear as to who came up with these innovations. In any event, the history of ice skating indicate that skates became widely used. Both royals and common folk found the idea of rolling on skates enjoyable as a sport. One account states that King James II popularized the sport. He was on a visit to the Netherlands when he saw people ice skating. Ice Skating Becomes Popular By the start of the Renaissance, ice skating had spread throughout the continent. Several artworks from the period show people on skates. During this time, icing rinks began appearing. Emperor Rudolf II had a rink specially built for him. Other royals who enjoyed the sport were French king Louis XVI and Napoleon III. As the history of ice skating evolved in Europe, the Stuart family also became enamored with the activity. In certain parts of Europe, the activity was restricted to the aristocrats or royalty. But eventually ice skating reached down to the masses. Without question, this development was crucial in spreading the popularity of ice skating as a whole. By the late 1500s, ice skating had become well known throughout the continent. In 1642, the Skating Club...
Who Invented the Parkland Formula?

Who Invented the Parkland Formula?...

Unanimously considered as the primary fluid resuscitation procedure for treating burn shock, the Parkland Formula is utilized in practically every burn center in the United States. It was invented by Charles R. Baxter, a doctor at the Parkland Memorial Hospital from which the formula got its name. Located in Dallas, Texas, Parkland Memorial has a place in history as the hospital where the three principal figures involved in the 1963 assassination of US President John F. Kennedy had died; namely, President Kennedy himself, suspected gunman Lee Harvey Oswald, and Oswald’s killer Jack Ruby. It was in fact then-emergency room director Baxter himself who unsuccessfully attempted to save Kennedy’s life. He also performed surgery on Texas Governor John Connaly, who had been injured during the incident. Dr. Baxter realized that severely-burned patients required an enormous amount of fluid in the first day of their treatment, particularly during the first 8 hours. It was in 1968 when he began developing the Parkland Formula based on studies he had conducted on animals and later tests on 11 burn patients. The method entailed administering Lactated Ringer’s (LR) at a rate of ml/kg/% burn, administering half the volume during the initial 8 hours and the other half over the following 16 hours, with the urine output being used as a clinical guide. Dr. Baxter would also specify that the plasma is to be administered at 0.3-0.5 ml/kg/% burn over the initial resuscitation’s fourth 8-hour interval; taking note that crystalloid in itself was not adequate enough to remedy the volume shortage. He would eventually report that the application of plasma had been based on research made with animals, and that employing the same process on human subjects did not evince a plasma volume increase superior...
Who Invented Toothpaste?

Who Invented Toothpaste?...

The modern history of toothpaste began in 1892. That was the year Dr. Washington Sheffield of the USA invented the collapsible tube for storing toothpaste. Four years later in 1896, Colgate began making its own brand. The Early Toothpastes The earliest known reference to any mixture for cleaning teeth comes from a 4th century AD Egyptian manuscript. The ingredients included flowers that would be crushed together. Exactly how this was used is unclear. But it is known that the Greeks and Romans used some form of toothpaste. Among the ingredients they used were animal bones and oyster shells. The history of toothpaste also shows that it was available in 9th century Persia. A musician named Ziryab invented a mixture similar to toothpaste. The exact ingredients are still unknown. However it became very popular, especially in Spain. To this day, it’s still uncertain as to how these toothpastes were used. Some Native Americans used neem tree twigs as a toothbrush. Whether these twigs were used by the ancient Europeans is still undetermined. Some historians assert that the early toothpastes were rubbed on the teeth using cloth. Tooth Powder During the 19th century, tooth powders became popular in the UK. They were made from salt or chalk. A look at the history of toothpaste indicates that even charcoal were used as tooth powder. However there were other toothpaste formulas used. Some manuscripts show toothpastes in 18th century America were made from burnt bread. Other toothpastes included resin, alum and cinnamon. Quite possibly an assortment of herbs were employed as well. The Modern Toothpaste Appears In 1900 toothpaste consisting of hydrogen peroxide and baking soda started to be manufactured. However it was not until the outbreak of World War I that Sheffield’s...
Who Invented the Color Television?

Who Invented the Color Television?...

Early Traces of Color Television Well, early traces points to a German patent that was garnered in 1904. This was said to contain the first recorded proposal written for a color television. In 1928, Charles Jenkins receives the license for the first television station issued by the Federal Radio Commission. Another known patent was filed by Vladimir Zworykin in 1925 for a television system using all-electronic color. The transmission and television reception of the images was done with what was called a kinescope tube. However, both patents did not receive instant success for the color television system. Nevertheless, these were the earliest records in history for color television, and these early records of inventors were known to be the ones who invented the color television system. Other Attempts in Modifying the System With Peter Goldmark leading the group of CBS researchers, Goldmark invented a particular mechanical color TV system in 1940. This system was actually based on John Logie Baird’s designs in 1928. But this didn’t last long in the market. Rise to Commercial Success It was only during the year 1949 did televisions rose to commercial success with the monochrome television. Around ten million of these television sets were sold to a lot of people. And television programs were made available to the pleasure of the public. But color television systems can only be licensed if the broadcast signal for colored systems can be received as a monochrome signal on these television sets. Attempts at Making a National Standard System In 1950, FCC authorized CBS’s color televisions system as the standard system throughout the nation even though the system used was not actually compatible with early products of black and white monochrome TV sets. (CBS and RCA are...
Who Invented the Floppy Disk?

Who Invented the Floppy Disk?...

The history of the floppy disk is quite straightforward. It was invented by a team of IBM researchers led by Alan Shugart. The chief designer of Shugart’s team was David Noble. The first floppy disks became available in 1971. Development of the Floppy Disk The goal of IBM was to create a storage device where users could store information. Even as hard disks emerged, it became clear that users would need to backup their files and software programs. The first floppy disks were called memory disks. The ones that came out in 1971 were 8 inches in diameter and made of plastic. It also had magnetic iron oxide. The early history of the floppy disk shows that it was a success. Aside from IBM, other companies would improve upon the IBM device. Among the pioneers were Memorex and Shugart Associates. The 5 ¼ Inch Disk Although the 8 inch disk was widely used it had its limitations. It was very big and was not very reliable in the long run. In 1976, Shugart Associates started producing the 5 ¼ disks. Within two years, nine other companies started making these disks. Its popularity would render the 8 inch floppies obsolete. The early 5 ¼ inch disks came in two formats: the hard sectored (90 kb) and soft sectored (110 kb). Over time the hard sector would disappear. The 3 ½ Inch Disk The history of the floppy disk shows that the 5 ¼ disk would share the same fate as the 8 inch drive. During the early to mid 1980s, the disk was sufficient for storing programs and backing up files. But eventually the programs got larger and so did the files. In response companies began making other devices like...
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