Who Invented Silly Putty?

Who Invented Silly Putty?...

Silly Putty (also known as Nutty Putty) is a trademark owned by Crayola for silicone polymers. The products are sold today in grocery stores and shopping malls as toys for children. Additionally, silicone polymers have important scientific and medical uses. Most physical therapists use the polymers for the treatments of hand injuries. Aside from this, the materials are also helpful for reducing stress level. Above all, these were used to secure the things inside the spaceship of Apollo astronauts when they reached zero-gravity areas in the orbit. To know more about the product, let us start with the person who was credited for Silly Putty. History of the Trademark Who invented Silly Putty? Some reports said that it was Dow Corning owner Earl Warrick developed silicone polymers but Crayola believed that Scottish inventor James Wright invented the material in 1943. Both Warrick and Wright realized that when silicone oil and boric acid were combined, these would produce certain chemical reaction. The reaction would produce a bouncy and gooey material that has numerous unique characteristics or properties. It could be stretched out like the regular rubber and it could bounce like a ball when it was dropped. In addition, the researchers found that the material has a high melting temperature. To make money out of the invention, Wright sent samples of silicone polymers to various companies in the world. In 1949, toy store owner Ruth Fallgatter marketed the material in a clear package for $2. The item was the best-selling item in the store next to Crayola crayons. Fallgatter’s marketing consultant Peter Hodgson saw the potential of the product. He marketed the putty in plastic eggs and he offered the toys to the students of Yale University for $1. He...
Who Invented the Traffic Signal?

Who Invented the Traffic Signal?...

Early Traffic Signals Traffic lights had been in use even before cars were invented. In those days, people used horses, wagons and other means of transport. But the traffic was still horrible. So in 1868 in London, England, traffic enforcers came up with a basic device: A lantern with two lights – red and green. Green stood for “caution” and red for “stop.” A policeman would turn the lights regularly with a lever. Unfortunately this early traffic light proved unsafe. One model exploded a year later and hurt the operator. Automobiles and the Invention of the Modern Traffic Signals Things made a turn for the worse when cars were invented. In the early 20th century, transportation was in transition. Some people were using the new automobiles, others were still riding horses, wagons or bicycles. They all shared the same roads and streets with pedestrians. A lot of accidents took place as a result. A traffic police officer named William L. Potts, from Detroit, Michigan knew something had to be done. He saw as automated railroad signals as a model for street traffic signals. But the difference was railroads went on a straight path; streets were at right angles. So Potts designed a traffic signal device that could service four-way streets. He used three colors red, yellow (or amber) and green. He put the signal together with electric controls and wires. In 1920, he had it installed on the Michigan Avenue – Woodward corner street. These were the first automatic traffic signals. Detroit police went on to add fourteen more of these in twelve months. Patent for the Invention of the Traffic Signal As useful as Police Officer Potts’ invention was, he was not the first nor the last to...
Who Invented Nanotechnology?

Who Invented Nanotechnology?...

When analyzing the facts about nanotechnology, it will become apparent that not one person was responsible for inventing it. The word itself was coined by Professor Norio Taniguchi in 1974. The idea of manipulating atoms and molecules was first brought up by Richard Feynman in 1959. Origin of Nanotechnology Feynman gave his lecture on December 29, 1959 at the American Physical Meeting Society. He discussed a procedure wherein molecules and atoms could be harnessed using specially designed instruments. The word nanotechnology had not been invented yet, but his proposition is an exact description of the science. More facts about nanotechnology surfaced with Professor Taniguchi’s work. In his 1974 paper, the professor described the process as consolidation or separation of atoms or molecules. Dr. K Eric Drexler popularized the word with his books (Engine of Creation and Nanosystems). The Engines of Creation came out in 1986 and was the first book ever on the subject. The 1980s Nanotechnology began taking off in the 1980s, mainly due to the emergence of cluster science and the creation of the STM (scanning tunneling microscope). This was followed by the discovery and manipulation of fullerenes in the mid 80s. Its progression was also helped by the development of semiconductor nanocrystals. This resulted in an increase of metal oxide nanoparticles. A study of the facts about nanotechnology show quantum dots also grew. 1987 saw the first protein engineered and a symposium on the subject was held. By the following year, courses on nanotechnology were being offered in universities. In 1991, the atomic force microscope was created. The 1990s also saw increased use and manipulation of carbon nanotubes. Potential Benefits Although still in its infancy, the potential benefits of nanotechnology have been cited by scientists. Nanotechnology...
Who Invented Daylight Savings Time?

Who Invented Daylight Savings Time?...

Daylight savings time (also known as DST) refers to the practice of advancing clocks to maximize the use of sunlight and to save energy used for producing electricity. This practice is popular in some countries including the United States and Great Britain. Individuals who support DST believe that they can use the additional daylight for doing different leisure activities. Additionally, retail shops also benefit from this practice since their electric consumption will be lessened. To learn more about this conventional practice, it is important to have a closer look at the history of the Daylight Savings Time. History of DST Who invented Daylight Savings Time? DST was invented by George Vernon Hudson, an entomologist in New Zealand, in the late 1800s. In his research in 1895, Hudson proposed the adjustment of day hours. He realized the value of daylight in his work, which is to examine the behaviors of insects. Individuals who read the research, showed interest in his proposal. In this regard, Hudson published another research that would support his claims about DST in 1898. In 1905, English outdoorsman William Willet realized the importance of DST to the lives of people in London, England during summer. He came to this realization while in a pre-breakfast ride. In 1907, Willet published research about the benefits from the Daylight Savings Time. DST in the United States The implementation of DST was observed in 1918. At this time, the Congress gave power to local governments whether to implement the Daylight Savings Time or not. However, on February 9, 1942 to September 30, 1945, the national government implemented the act nationally because the country faced energy crisis during the Second World War. After 1945, the legislation was revised and the implementation of...
Who Invented Chocolate?

Who Invented Chocolate?

Do you know who invented chocolate? Have you ever wondered how this sweet concoction in many cookies, cakes, and its own sweet variations really started? The Cacao (Cocoa) Beans Dating back to 1500 BC, during those early Mesoamerican civilizations, Olmec Indians grew cacao beans. Perhaps, from this info, you would think that this was the first taste of chocolate in those times. Were the Indians the ones who invented chocolate? Actually, according to history, it was the Mayans and the Aztecs who developed these beans into chocolate drinks. Aside from the Indians, these groups were also known to grow these beans. Another historical figure that you may want to thank is Christopher Columbus. In the early 1500s, Columbus brought those cocoa beans to Europe. During that time, chocolate drinks spread throughout Spain. But it didn’t become an instant hit in other parts of Europe immediately. It took a hundred years later before people from various regions in Europe tasted the drinks. Progress and Popularity A Frenchman opened a shop that served as London’s first chololate house in 1657. It was named The Coffee Mill and Tobacco Roll. Since the cost for the the chocolate beverage was too expensive, loyal patrons of the shop were merely from the upper class of society. In 1674, chocolate was used for another type of business. It became a main ingredient in making cakes and rolls. But the progress of chocolate didn’t stop there. Monsieur Dubuisson of France took its popularity another notch higher. This was clearly achieved in those days when Dubuisson invented a table mill in 1732 which was known to help grind chocolate. Another invention by Joseph Fry of England also made chocolate gain more popularity. Fry’s invention created another milestone...
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