Who Invented the Water Closet?

Who Invented the Water Closet?...

Probably one of the most important inventions for all times, the water closet was first thought to be a brainchild of the British. And one name had stood out the most when it came to who invented the water closet. Thomas Crapper Thomas Crapper was a plumber in London in the 19th century. Though some historians today doubt his credibility as the person who invented the water closet, most of traditional plumbing history still honors him as the first water closet maker. He was said to have set up toilets, especially the U-bend trap he patented, for Queen Victoria. Sir John Harington But earlier on, in 1596, a noted inventor was said to be the man who invented the water closet which he made for special use by his godmother, Queen Elizabeth. It was then a most ridiculous thing to invent, so it was made the joke of the day. Consequently, Sir John Harington set it aside and never built another one. However, he and Queen Elizabeth went on using it for toilet convenience. This is another version of the first water closet maker. Alexander Cummings Some 200 years after Harrington, Alexander Cummings introduced the sliding valve contraption. This expedited waste water transfer from the bowl to the U-trap. This was definitely a breakthrough added on to the original work of the man who invented the water closet, as this version asserts. Samuel Prosser and Joseph Bramah In 1777, the plunger closet was introduced. Another first water closet maker, this time with a patented plunger, was Samuel Prosser. After a year, Joseph Brahma introduced the first ballcock prototype. Ballcock was a hinge placed at the bottom of the toilet bowl. Brahma installed a lot of this in ships and...
Who Invented Chess?

Who Invented Chess?

Chess is one the most complex things that man has ever made. It is said that the number of combination of moves possible in chess far outnumber the number of stars in the universe. It may be an easy game to learn but it is hardly arguable that it is a game that only gifted people with years of practice can master. With the game’s complexity, one would really wonder who invented chess since it is very much apparent that it is a cut miles above other board games and past times that appeared across the history of man. To answer who invented chess, one must travel through its history to know its development. The earliest form of chess appeared in India in the sixth century B.C. It is why one could consider the Indians to be the people who invented chess since its history started in India. This does not mean that this early form of chess was near to the one we play today however. In fact, one can see that it is nowhere near close just by learning that the earliest form of chess is played by four players. This early form however, introduced the different pieces that correspond to different ranks which makes it a clear ancestor of the modern chess. From India, the said prototype of chess reached Persia, which is modern-day Iran. It is where the chess terms check and checkmate originated from as the Persians greatly modified the game, making it closer to what we are playing today. The Persians may not be candidates for being the people who invented chess but nevertheless, they contributed greatly to its development by modifying the game and by being a transit point through which chess...
Who Invented the Potato Clock?

Who Invented the Potato Clock?...

In these environmentally-conscious times, everyone’s been looking towards developing alternative sources of energy, from solar power to geothermal energy. On a much smaller scale, it has been proven that energy can also be drawn from the most unlikely of sources: a potato. The Potato Clock was invented in 1983 by one William A. Borst. The impetus for this unassuming but clever gadget started rather innocently, when Borst was assisting his stepdaughter on a science project. He was reminded of a physics demonstration that he had witnessed in high school, in which a battery was created by affixing 2 metal prods into a potato. Borst thought of replicating that experiment, but with the addition of an electric-powered device which could run on the small charge of energy that the potato battery would generate. Borst settled on a digital clock, but he realized that it would require a greater amount of energy than just one potato battery can generate in order to function. So to amplify the charge to be delivered to the clock, he decided to connect 2 potatoes in sequence. The move proved conclusive, and he was indeed able to power a digital clock by drawing electricity from a couple of potatoes. A further experiment was then made to find out how long the potato-powered clock would operate. The time-duration test was conducted in an auto-repair shop that Borst had co-owned at the time. A customer happened to walk into the shop and asked about the curious device that was being tested. As it turns out, the customer was working for the local newspaper, which would then run an article about Borst’s invention. Eventually, word about the potato clock would spread, and what started as a modest school project...
Who Invented Rock and Roll?

Who Invented Rock and Roll?...

Exactly when the history of rock and roll began is unclear. The genre itself evolved from the blues, country and other musical styles of the 1930s and 40s. It was disc jock Alan Freed who popularized the phrase in the 1950s. The 1950s It’s not easy to determine what the first rock and roll song actually was but Rocket 88 by Jackie Brenston and the Delta Cars is often mentioned as a top candidate. However it was Bill Haley’s Rock Around the Clock (1955) that topped the charts. With its popularity, rock and roll became widespread. This was followed by a string of hits as new artists emerged in the genre. Bo Diddley’s I’m a Man became a hit in 1955. Little Richard, meanwhile, became one of the first major stars in the history of rock and roll. Among his biggest hits were Long Tall Sally in 1956 and Good Golly Miss Molly (1958). Chuck Berry also broke through with Maybellene in 1955 and also came out with Johnny B Goodie (1958). The biggest rock and roll star was Elvis Presley whose first hit was That’s All Right in 1954. Decline Fro a time rock and roll was the best selling genre in the US. However it declined in the late 1950s and 1960s. There were several factors that led to this. Among them were the deaths of Ritchie Valens and Buddy Holly. Elvis Presley left to join the Army. Little Richard became a preacher and other genres became popular. However this period in the history of rock and roll did not actually mean the genre was dead. The music simply assumed other forms. Emergence of Rock Music While most of the 1960s music charts were dominated by the...
Who Invented the Wheelbarrow?

Who Invented the Wheelbarrow?...

The history of the wheelbarrow began in Greece circa 406 BC. However there are no records that indicate who actually made it. The Wheelbarrow in Ancient Civilizations The Greeks didn’t stay what they used the device for. In fact there is nothing that indicates it was utilized for farming. But most scholars assume that the device was employed in construction sites. The vehicle was very likely used to transport certain loads to the site. There is evidence of a one wheeled vehicle in 4th century AD Rome. However the ongoing research suggests that the wheelbarrow may have been used there too. The history of the wheelbarrow doesn’t provide information on its use in the Byzantine Empire. From the fall of Rome to the 11th century, use of the wheelbarrow stopped. There are no records indicating when or why this happened. It is possible that as Europe was plunged into chaos following Rome’s collapse, the vehicle was simply forgotten. The Wheelbarrow in Medieval Times Records show that the wheelbarrows reappeared around 1170 to 1250. Almost all of them had the same design. The wheel was set at the front area. This arrangement is still used in virtually all wheelbarrows. Research into the vehicle’s history is difficult. The main reason is the language. Countries used different terms to describe it. This makes it hard to determine if the vehicle referred to is a wheelbarrow or not. But studies on the history of the wheelbarrow has shed some light on the matter. There are at least four instances where the wheelbarrow was mentioned, from 1172 to 1222. But the terms used were different. The first time that the wheelbarrow was referred to dates from 1222. This was an English document involving the...
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