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Who Invented the Machine Gun?

Who Invented the Machine Gun?...

The development and history of the machine is complex, but the fact is that Hiram Maxim was the first one to invent and use a machine gun that was self powered. The American inventor showed off his work to the British Army in 1885. He had invented it a year earlier in 1884. The Early Years of the Machine Gun Prior to Maxim’s invention, inventors had begun experimenting with the idea of a continuous rapid fire gun. In 1718, James Puckle came up with the Defence Gun. It consisted of a revolver mounted on a cylinder base. It could fire 60 shots in seven minutes, but the cylinder had to be adjusted manually. Other early designs included the Wilson Agar’s Coffee Mill gun and the Billinghurst–Requa. Both were widely used during the Civil War. These firearms were important in the early history of the machine gun as it gave inventors an idea of what the design had to be like. The Maxim Machine Gun and Others This rapid fire weapon was invented by the American Richard Gatling in 1861. It was first used by the US Army in 1865 and it would also become popular with European armies. Tests by the British Army showed it could fire 600 shots in two minutes. Maxim’s invention (the Maxim Machine Gun) became popular because of its efficiency. It was able to fire 500 rounds every minute. The key was using the recoil to remove the used cartridge and set the new one in place. The history of the machine gun reveals the Maxim gun was bought by the British in 1889. A year later, the Germans, Italians and Russians started ordering Maxim’s machine guns. The success of Hiram Maxim’s weapon inspired others...
Who Invented the Toilet?

Who Invented the Toilet?...

The name Thomas Crapper is bound to come up whenever people discuss who invented the toilet. Sometimes it is given with serious consideration while others only take delight in the pun regarding his name. Thomas Crapper was a sanitary engineer who contributed to the design of the modern day flush toilet. However, it is interesting that there have been toilets in existence even thousands of years ago. Origin from Crete The earliest possible hint we have as to who invented the toilet dates back up to around 4,000 years into the past. There are those who theorize that an unnamed Minoan, which means a local of Crete, is the inventor of today’s toilet. However, an unknown and unnamed Minoan won’t give us who invented the toilet. At least we now know that as early as 2,500 B.C. seated toilets have been in use, which means that such toilets also had a drainage system. John Harrington Next among the theories on who invented the toilet comes John Harrington in the 16th Century. He was quite an unfortunate earl who angered Queen Elizabeth. Part of his works include a translation of Orlando Furioso, which was noted to have been done with both perseverance and skill. In relation to the question of who invented the toilet, Sir John Harrington published The Metamorphosis of Ajax, which is one of a trio of works that was published in succession in 1596. It contained the supposedly very first design of a water closet. Alexander Cumming The origin of the toilet takes another turn as Alexander Cumming comes into the scene. He is the first to patent a flushing device in 1775. His invention was a forerunner of the toilets we use today. Thomas Crapper He...
Who Invented Soccer?

Who Invented Soccer?

Some parts of the world call the game soccer while the others will call it football. However you call the game, it still remains as one of the most popular sports in the world today. In the past decades, it has been observed to have been growing steadily as new enthusiasts to the game are reeled in. With the increased popularity of the game comes the question regarding who invented soccer. Ancient Origins The origins of the game in response to the question of who invented soccer dig deep into human history. Many cultures have been seen to have created a game quite similar to the game we have today. Even with the many cultures and countries that have soccer-like games, we are still hard pressed to confirm which one exactly is the game’s point of origin. Looking into the history of ancient China, we can find a game quite similar to soccer. However, those who have played this ancient Chinese soccer-like game won’t easily recognize the one we play today as the one they played anciently known as cuju. The people of ancient China, obviously, were not the ones who invented soccer though they do have a game quite similar to it. Another game quite similar to soccer was played by ancient Greeks and Romans. The same sport was carried on to the times of medieval Europe. In this version of the game, bladders of pigs were used as balls. The bladders were inflated and kicked around. Later on a stuffed leather ball came into use. The said leather ball was filled with straw and old rags enough to resemble something like a round ball. The idea for the game is quite the same with the ball batted...
Who Invented the Paper Clip?

Who Invented the Paper Clip?...

Our modern day paper clip owes its beginnings to William D. Middlebrook. Its patent is dated on November 9, 1899. It is interesting that for over a hundred years, in spite of humble beginnings, no one has yet been able to create a more efficient way to hold loose sheets of paper. We’ll look into who invented the paper clip and its humble beginnings. Early Beginnings Some consider Samuel Fay as the either the forerunner or the man himself who invented the paper clip. However, if you look at the patent he obtained dated April 23, 1867 he called the device as a Ticket Fastener. The original idea that Fay had was to have the ticket fastener attach tickets to garments. In the description of the fastener you’ll find that as an additional use, it could be hold pieces of paper together. Samuel Fay was not the only one who submitted or invented the paper clip’s predecessors or devices like unto it. There were in fact some other 50 designs that were patented that would seem to be early precursors. The difference however is that the designs submitted prior to that of William Middlebrook’s don’t even come close to what the modern day paper clip would look like. Birth of the Paper Clip As mentioned earlier, William Middlebrook is credited as the one who invented the paper clip we know today. He in fact not only invented the paper clip but also the machine that would make paper clips. The drawings on the patent distinctly portray our modern day paper clip. The patent William Middlebrook obtained was for both the paper clip and its production machine. Coming of the GEM In the year 1899 the manufacturing company Cushman and...
Who Invented the Electric Guitar?

Who Invented the Electric Guitar?...

Definitely one of the most popular musical instruments today, the electric guitar is widely used by bands and musicians worldwide. It produces an easily distinguishable sound that greatly adds to the overall appeal of any given song. Artists like Santana, Avril Lavigne and Lenny Kravitz are just few of the many music personalities out there that make use of this important musical instrument. For those who are interested to know other things about this type of instrument, it is good to learn who invented the electric guitar. The Invention of the Electric Guitar Who invented the electric guitar? Les Paul, whose real name was Lester Williams Polsfuss, is credited for the invention of the first electric guitar with a solid body. In 1950, the stringed instrument manufacturer Fender released the solid-body electric guitar called the Fender Esquire, which became a commercial success. After that, it went on to become an integral part of numerous music styles like rockabilly, early rock and roll as well as Chicago blues. Likewise, it played a huge role in the development of blues-rock in the 1960s. Additionally, it also contributed to the flourishing of other musical genres including contemporary classic, new age and country music. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Details Some time in the 1930s and the 1940s, the demand for amplified guitars flourished as the jazz orchestras during that period expanded even more. Because of that huge demand for such musical instruments during that time, electronic enthusiasts, guitar makers and manufacturers tried to create various designs. One of them was Les Paul, who came up with the idea of attaching microphones right onto guitars. Earlier models came with a hollow-bodied acoustic design. The electric guitar is comprised of many different parts and...
Who Invented Electricity?

Who Invented Electricity?...

A study of the history of electricity makes it clear that no single scientist or inventor is responsible for its invention. No single person learned how to use it. Rather it was the culmination of the works of various researchers spanning several years. Earliest Mention of Electrical Use Historical records show that static electricity was already known to the ancient Greeks. In the 6th century BC a Greek named Thales of Miletus discovered that rubbing a fur would make a couple of objects attract one another. According to the legend he experimented with various objects. It was with amber that he was able to produce electrical sparks. Discoveries in the 15th Century The next important chapter in the history of electricity took place at the onset of the Renaissance. The Italian physicist Girolamo Cardano discovered fundamental aspects of electrical power and magnetism. His associate William Gilbert expounded on Cardano’s theories. In 1660 Otto von Guericke invented an electrostatic generator. This was the beginning of a new scientific field of study. This device, along with others that followed, revealed a number of things. The first is that electricity can move across a vacuum. The second is that materials can be divided between insulators and conductors. Finally, it was learned that electricity can be either in positive or negative forms. The 17th to 19th Centuries This period was crucial in the history of electricity. First of all, the capacitor was invented. Just as important was the discovery that static electricity could be changed into a current. It was also around this time that Benjamin Franklin performed his famous experiment with a kite. His experiments about lightning and electricity has been subject to debate, but his contribution to electricity theory cannot be...
Who Invented the Phonograph?

Who Invented the Phonograph?...

The history of the phonograph shows that Thomas Edison filed for the patent in December 1877. But he actually started developing it a few months earlier. The Origin of the Phonograph Edison was actually working on his telegraph. His objective was to make the telegraph send messages again and again. He used papers with some indentations. His design had a diaphragm with a point and set it against paraffin paper. He would later replace the paper with a cylinder enfolded in tin foil. He handed the design to John Kruesi (his mechanic) who created the machine. Edison spoke through it, and his words were recorded. The first words that were used in the history of the phonograph were the nursery rhyme Mary had a Little Lamb. Improvements on the Phonograph A year after getting the patent, the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company was established. The machine became popular although only a few people were able to use it as it was complicated. However Edison didn’t work on the phonograph for a while as he focused on his other inventions. However other inventors would make improvements to his invention. In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Tainter replaced the tin foil Edison used with wax. The needle was also replaced with a stylus. In response Edison came out with some improvements on his own model. The history of the phonograph reveal that Edison also used wax but also included stearic wax and ceresin. Edison followed this up in 1890 by releasing talking dolls using the phonograph’s wax cylinders. They came out with some musical cylinders. Nine years later a phonograph parlor was opened. The parlor was located in San Francisco. People would pay a nickel and their selection from the list...
Who Invented the Peace Sign?

Who Invented the Peace Sign?...

When we talk about the peace sign we would generally recall a circle with three lines inside. You are quite familiar with it if you were a child of the baby boomer generation when its use was quite prevalent. However, it wasn’t originally intended to be used a symbol for peace or a sign of peace. In fact, it wasn’t the first symbol to be used to denote peace. Creation of the Peace Sign A British artist by the name of Gerald Holtom is credited for creating the three-lined circle for peace. It wasn’t originally designed as a worldwide symbol for peace but was meant for another purpose. It was originally created for the nuclear disarmament movement in Britain. Holtom completed his design on February 21, 1958. It was used in a march conducted on April fourth of that same year. The march started from Trafalgar Square in London all the way to the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. The Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War commissioned the creation of this symbol. Adoption and Later Use Gerald Holtom’s design was later adopted for other purposes. It was first adopted for quite similar purposes and movements. However, as it became a really popular symbol it was also adopted by other movements as well. It was later used for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Later on during the anti-war movement of the 1960’s, Holtom’s symbol was also put to use. After that, it was later used by what was then the popular counterculture. Even Gerald Holtom would never have guessed that his design would cross oceanic borders or would be put to use for other purposes as well. His design came to the United States in the year 1958. A pacifist protester...
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