Recent Entries
Who Invented Plastic?

Who Invented Plastic?

Introduction Plastic is a general word describing synthetic or partly synthetic materials or objects. Plastic comes from a Greek word meaning “can be molded.” It refers to the ability to be molded during manufacture into a different shape. Hence the word “plasticity.” Invention of Plastic The first person who invented plastic was Alexander Parkes, a native of Birmingham, England. He called his work Parkesine after himself. The plastic he invented was organic. It was made from cellulose treated with a solvent and nitric acid. It could be molded into any shape when heated. When it cooled, the Parkesine plastic kept its shape. Parkes showed off his invention to the world in the Great International Exhibition in 1862. His plastic design won the bronze medal. Parkes thought that what he’d invented could replace rubber. But manufacturers soon grew cool to the Parkesine due to the high cost of its raw materials. Celluloid Plastic The next step in the invention of plastic occurred in the United States in the late 19th century. Billiards was getting very popular. Back then ivory was used to make billiard balls. Thousands of elephants were slaughtered only for their ivory tusks. Even back then it was impractical and expensive, not to mention cruel as later animal rights advocates would cry out. Then John Wesley Hyatt came to the rescue. One day as Hyatt was working in his shop, he spilled a bottle of collodion. When it dried, he discovered it was flexible yet strong. Hyatt experimented with his discovery. He found tat collodion by itself wasn’t tough enough for use in billiards. It was much too fragile. But when he added camphor to it, heated and then molded it, it became durable. Hyatt had invented celluloid...
Who Invented the Very First Camera?

Who Invented the Very First Camera?...

The history of the camera is long and complex. Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre invented the first photographic device in 1836. George Eastman popularized photographic film in 1885. However, camera like devices appeared years earlier. The Camera Obscura The first known instance of people being aware of photography theory was in 5th century China. A Chinese named Mo Ti observed the following effect. When light rays of an illuminated matter are reflected and go through a dark area, it will produce an inverted but otherwise identical copy. In 1000 AD, Alhazen created the pinhole camera or camera obscura. The history of the camera indicates that the next important discovery was made in 1727. That was when Johann Schulze learned silver nitrate became dim when it was exposed to light. Niepce’s Image Then in 1827, Frenchman Joseph Niepce managed to make a photographic image. He used the camera obscura for this task. Although the device had been around for a while, it was only used for illustration. Niepce called it the sun prints. But they were the descendants of modern photos as they also used light to produce the image. However it took eight hours to produce the image and it eventually faded. Niepce’s experiment was followed by that of Daguerre. Daguerre played an important role in the history of the camera. The daguerreotype method helped preserved images and took less than half an hour to produce the image. A different type of camera called the calotype was invented by William Talbot in 1840. By the 1880s, the success of Daguerre and Talbot spurned on other inventors. When gelatin dry plate was invented, it greatly helped in the quality of the output. As technology improved, cameras of all shapes and sizes started coming...
Who Invented the Computer Mouse?

Who Invented the Computer Mouse?...

The mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1965 while working at the Stanford Research Institute. He was also helped by his colleague Bill English. The history of the computer mouse shows he never profited from it. The patent had expired long before the device came into wide usage. Early Prototypes Before Engelbart developed the mouse, the trackball had already been invented. In 1954, the Canadian Navy created the device for utilization on the DATAR system. The mouse Engelbart made was large and had two wheels. Although he invented the mouse in 1965, he only patented it in 1970. He called the device an XY Position Indicator for a Display System. The basic idea was actually inspired by the telautograph which was designed back in the 19th century. A couple of years later (1972) Bill English created the ball mouse. This was an improvement from the original and marked a significant point in the history of the computer mouse. Unlike the mouse with wheels, the ball allowed the mouse to move in any direction. The device was included in the Xerox computer where English was working at the time. Other Mouse Types In 1975, another type of ball mouse was created by Jack Hawley also while working at Xerox. Honeywell later produced a wheeled mouse which moved along its axes. However it was in the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne that the standard mouse appeared. The project was headed by André Guignard and Professor Jean-Daniel Nicoud. Their design would change the history of the computer mouse. They changed the rubber ball so that it became harder and more stable. They also increased the buttons to three. This would remain the standard until the mid 1990s when the third button...
Who Invented the Telescope?

Who Invented the Telescope?...

The telescope is an indispensable tool for studying and observing the heavenly bodies. Without it, we are blind, literally and figuratively, to the workings of the universe beyond our planet. With its importance, it is then an interesting question to ask: who invented the telescope? Asking the question is not that east to answer primarily because unlike other inventions, the telescope was not designed, developed, and made first by a single individual. Rather it was a tool that was in continuous development in its early years. This is when asking who invented the telescope, it is important to discuss the different people who contributed greatly to its creation. First in the list of the people said to be ones who invented the telescope and/or contributed greatly to its development are Jacob Metius, Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen, Dutch reading glass makers. Because of their proficiency and precision in working with glass and producing lenses, each of them were the able to independently produce working refracting telescopes, at most weeks from each other. Refracting telescopes are the earliest form of telescopes, and they rely on a lens in forming an image. Although all of the three can be considered the pioneers of telescopes, Lippershey is widely credited to be the one who invented the telescope since he was the one who was published first. Galileo is another important figure in the history of the telescope. He greatly improved on the design of the three Dutch inventors and made his own telescopes. Using his improved design, he was bale to do historic scientific works which revolutionized scientific thinking forever. Another revolutionary in the field of science, Isaac Newton, can also be considered as one of the people who invented the telescope...
Who Invented McDonalds?

Who Invented McDonalds?

Mcdonalds is one of the leading and largest hamburger fast food chains in the world. According to reports, 47 million customers visit franchises of the food service provider daily. The restaurant serves various items like chicken products, cheeseburgers, hamburger, milk shakes and soft drinks. To enhance its sales, the food service provider also added healthy foods in its menu including a vegetable salad as well as wraps. The corporation started in 1940 in the United States. To know more about the restaurant, it is best to identify the people behind the development and success of Mcdonalds. History of the Fast Food Chain Who invented Mcdonalds? Mac and Dick Macdonald developed the concept for the fast food chain in 1940 when they moved their small hotdog stand from the Monrovia Airport to the 14th and E Street at the U.S. Route 66 in San Bernadino, California. At this time, the most popular and in-demand product that they sell is hamburger. After eight years, the brothers changed the menu and introduced the Speedee Service System in their restaurant. The system gave them advantage over other diners in the area because they prepare the burgers before customers ordered the products. In 1953, Mac and Dick Macdonald arranged with Neil Fox to franchise the restaurant. The first franchise of the restaurant was opened in Phoenix, Arizona. During the same year, the second and third franchises of Mcdonalds were opened in Saginaw, Michigan as well as in Downey, California, respectively. In 1955, entrepreneur Ray Kroc arranged with the brothers to open the Mcdonalds Systems Inc. He opened the ninth franchise of the fast food chain at Des Plaines in Illinois on April 15, 1955. The improvement in the sales continued until in 1958, the...
Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac?

Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac?...

Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac? The Chinese Zodiac is not a “zodiac” at all since it is neither based on the constellations nor is it a division of the ecliptic. Rather it is a way to observe time in cycles. There are no written record so who invented the Chinese Zodiac. However there are many theories about its origin. One story relates that the ancient Chinese used to keep time by the use of ten “heavenly stems” and twelve “earthly branches.” Different combinations of these stems and branches were used to tell the month, year, day and hour. The calculations were too complicated for average folk, so they used common animals to symbolize the time divisions. The story tells us that the famous Yellow Emperor was the first to use the Chinese Zodiac. He introduced it in the year 2,600 B.C. to begin the Chinese Lunar Year. In ancient China, the emperors were well schooled in astrology. It was believed that one had to know the ways of the stars and the heavens to be a worthy ruler. Legendary Origin of the Chinese Zodiac A couple of legends exist telling why the Chinese Zodiac is ordered the way it is. According to one version, the Buddha summoned all the animals in the world to a meeting. Only the twelve animals – rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog and pig – heeded his call. The Buddha rewarded each animal by making it the ruler of one of the signs. He gave them each year according to their order of arrival. A second version narrates how the beasts argued over who should come first in the yearly cycle. So the Jade Emperor told them to race...
Who Invented the Television?

Who Invented the Television?...

The history of television is complex and no single person can claim to be its inventor. However the following will show an outline of its development and the individuals responsible for it. Early History Its origins can be traced back to 1873 when Willoughby Smith discovered photoconductivity in selenium, vital to TV’s development. Records show that in 1884, a German named Nipkow had gotten a patent for an electromechanical TV in 1884. Nipkow never worked on the TV though, but he designed the spinning disk. This spinning disk is regarded as the first TV image rasterizer. The word television itself was invented by Constantin Perskyi at the International Electricity Congress at the International World Fair (Paris, August 25, 1900). The history of television shows that the prototypes were first used to relay simple sstill images. Electronic TV The next stage in TV’s development took place in 1911. An engineer named Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton described how cathode ray tubes could be used to relay electric vision for both receiving and transmission. The use of a transmitter was also considered for the first time. During the 1920s, several scientists started working on electronic transmission tubes. On September 7, 1927, Philo Farnsworth used a camera tube and transmitted an image (a single line) in his lab. A year later he was giving public demonstrations and in 1929 transmitted images of people. The history of television shows that in 1934 the electronic TV had been invented. The 1930s and 40s Britain’s Isaac Shoenberg developed a device for transmitting 405 line images in 1936. The 625 line was first used in the Soviet Union in 1944. It became widely used in the USSR and was adapted throughout Europe. As innovations continued, the number of...
Who Invented Boolean Logic?

Who Invented Boolean Logic?...

The Boolean logic (also known as Boolean algebra) is an efficient logic operations system that is very useful in studying various fields like computer science, electronics and digital electronics. The system became more popular when Claude Shannon used electric circuits and relays as an analogy for the Boolean algebra. Before we proceed with the applications of the system in search engine queries, database and digital electronic circuit design, it is best to know the person behind the invention of the Boolean logic. Historical Background of the System Who invented Boolean logic? Mathematician George Boole invented the logic operations system in the mid 1800s. He incorporated logic to the basic concepts of mathematics and determined the base information of Boolean algebra. His invention of the system was published in the paper that he released in 1847 entitled “The Mathematical Analysis of Logic.” The system played an essential role in the development of binary system by Claude Shannon, which became significant to computer science. Additional Information and Other Important Details There are three operators that are significant to the logic operations system, which are the ‘and,’ ‘or’ and not. The first operator is defined by the dot symbol. On the other hand, the second operator is defined by the plus sign. Finally, the third operator is defined by A with a line on top of the letter. In addition to operators, Boolean logic has properties that are similar with the usual set logic. Some of the properties associated with this logic operations system are associativity, commutativity, absorption and distributivity. The other properties of the system are complements, idempotency, boundedness, 0 and 1 are complements, de Morgan’s laws as well as involution. This special operations system is widely used in the field...
Page 1 of 3112345...102030...Last »