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Who Invented the Wheelbarrow?

Who Invented the Wheelbarrow?...

The history of the wheelbarrow began in Greece circa 406 BC. However there are no records that indicate who actually made it. The Wheelbarrow in Ancient Civilizations The Greeks didn’t stay what they used the device for. In fact there is nothing that indicates it was utilized for farming. But most scholars assume that the device was employed in construction sites. The vehicle was very likely used to transport certain loads to the site. There is evidence of a one wheeled vehicle in 4th century AD Rome. However the ongoing research suggests that the wheelbarrow may have been used there too. The history of the wheelbarrow doesn’t provide information on its use in the Byzantine Empire. From the fall of Rome to the 11th century, use of the wheelbarrow stopped. There are no records indicating when or why this happened. It is possible that as Europe was plunged into chaos following Rome’s collapse, the vehicle was simply forgotten. The Wheelbarrow in Medieval Times Records show that the wheelbarrows reappeared around 1170 to 1250. Almost all of them had the same design. The wheel was set at the front area. This arrangement is still used in virtually all wheelbarrows. Research into the vehicle’s history is difficult. The main reason is the language. Countries used different terms to describe it. This makes it hard to determine if the vehicle referred to is a wheelbarrow or not. But studies on the history of the wheelbarrow has shed some light on the matter. There are at least four instances where the wheelbarrow was mentioned, from 1172 to 1222. But the terms used were different. The first time that the wheelbarrow was referred to dates from 1222. This was an English document involving the...
Who Invented the Iron?

Who Invented the Iron?

If there was no one who invented the iron, you could probably imagine how everyone’s clothes would look like after being washed and hanged on the clothesline to dry before using. Most probably, it would look really horrid with all its wrinkles and creases. That is why much gratitude should be extended to the person who invented the iron even though you may probably think that it was designed more as a simpler model than the ones on the market today. To Answer the Needs of Many Housewives Before the emergence of the iron in stores everywhere, many housewives in the early years had a hard time making their clothes look presentable and wrinkle-free. The early procedures included hand pressing, using steam or heat, or rolling procedures just to get things right. Those were the normal situations of the past – that may have seem a bit chaotic in many households – before a New Yorker named Henry W. Seely invented and patented the electric pressing iron on the 6th of June in the year 1882. This invention was named as the “electric flatiron.” Learning More about the Inventor Born in Richville, Kentucky, in July 2, 1854, Henry W. Seely had really gone a long way. Aside from inventions such as creating the first iron device, this inventor also had witnessed a number of patents. If you would do a research, you would see Seely’s name in more than a hundred patents for certain inventions in history. This includes the invention of the light bulb by Thomas Edison. The Early Usage of the First Model Unlike most of the current models, the first few irons that were manufactured years ago were known to use carbon arc. This was used...
Who Invented the Hubble Telescope?

Who Invented the Hubble Telescope?...

A study of the history of the Hubble telescope will reveal it was named after the scientist Edwin Hubble. The telescope was created by numerous engineers, contractors and scientists at NASA. Work on the space telescope began in 1977. The Hubble was launched on April 25, 1990. Historical Background As early as the 1930s, scientists had been pointing out the benefits of having a telescope in space. It would provide a clear and more comprehensive view of space without being obstructed by the Earth’s atmosphere. As the US space program began in the 1950s the idea for the space telescope began gaining support. The history of the Hubble telescope shows that a number of proposals were sent to Congress. Finally on 1977, Congress approved funding for the program, 15 years after it was first proposed by NASA. Construction and Launch The Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked with the construction of the telescope. The Goddard Space Flight Center was employed to create the ground controls and the equipment to be used. Meanwhile the Perkin Elmer Corporation worked on the mirrors and other contractors were employed to work on the design and other components. It was also at this time that the Hubble name was chosen. Edwin Hubble was the scientist who discovered that the universe was expanding. The history of the Hubble telescope shows that it was supposed to be launched in 1986. But the Challenger disaster occurred and the space program was put on hold. The telescope was finally put into orbit in 1990. When Hubble sent back images, scientists discovered a flaw in the mirror. It was in 1993 that NASA was able to rectify the problem by installing a camera on the mirror. The component was...
Who Invented the Chalkboard?

Who Invented the Chalkboard?...

Mr. James Pillans is regarded as the inventor of the chalkboard (or blackboard). He was the Headmaster of a high school in Edinburgh, Scotland. However, the experts on the history of the chalkboard aren’t sure when he invented it. Blackboard and Chalkboard The word chalkboard is used mainly in the United States. It started to be used around 1935-40. In other countries and regions, blackboard is the term employed. The word blackboard has been in use for a much longer period. Records show it was being utilized as far back as 1815. Spread of the Chalkboard Exactly how Pillans conceived of the chalkboard isn’t clear. But it’s known he was using it to teach geography in the school and that he was using a chalk. The device was first employed in the US in 1801. A teacher at West Point named George Baron used the chalkboard for his math class. However the history of the chalkboard began, its use became widespread. This is understandable. Prior to 1801, teachers couldn’t present their concepts and ideas in a visual manner. In most classes, students employed slates. The material was made of wood and covered with black grit. Other slates were made of porcelain. It was where students used to write their lessons. Because there were no chalkboards, the teaching process was tedious. If a teacher wanted the students to solve a math equation, they would go to every student. The instructor would write the math problem on the slate. To make matters worse, not all students had slates. The first school in California was inaugurated in 1846. Because the students and teachers didn’t have slates, the students had to write their answers on their hands. As the history of the chalkboard...
Who Invented Chemotherapy?

Who Invented Chemotherapy?...

Chemotherapy is a very important medical procedure used widely to treat people with severe illnesses, specifically cancer patients. Designed to kill cells, it is guaranteed to have positive effects against cancerous tumors and microorganisms. It affects the cells in hair follicles, digestive tract as well as bone marrow. People who undergo it usually experience hair loss or alopecia, inflammation of the digestive tract lining or mucositis and decreased blood cell production or myelosuppression. Aside from these significant details, it is good to know other important information about it including who invented chemotherapy. The Invention of Chemotherapy Who invented chemotherapy? Based on reports, it was Alfred Gilman and Louis S. Goodman who invented this kind of treatment. In the 1940s, the U.S. Department of Defense hired them to conduct research on the use of nitrogen mustard as therapeutic agent. They found that such chemical warfare agent could actually treat lymphoma. After that, Eli Lilly discovered the effectiveness of Madagascar periwinkle in blocking tumor cell proliferation. In 1965, the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy as cancer treatment was discovered. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Information The use of drugs and chemical substances as medication originated in ancient India, where the people once adhered to the practice referred to as Ayurveda. As part of this practice, people herbs and metals were used widely to treat various types of illnesses. By the 10th century, a Persian physician named Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi started the chemical use for medical purposes. Amongst the items he used were alcohol, bitumen and tar. Likewise, he also used other unconventional materials to treat diseases such as arsenic salts, mercuric salts and copper. Primarily, doctors recommend chemotherapy to patients in order to palliate symptoms or prolong life. This specific kind...
Who Invented Bingo?

Who Invented Bingo?

The invention of Bingo dates back to 1929; although a game similar to it dates back centuries before, which is where bingo originated. This article seeks to investigate the historical facts of Bingo. Bingo is similar to an Italian lottery that was played in the 1530s and was called “Lo Giuoco del Lotto D’Italia”. The game is based more on chance rather than skill. The popularity of the game grew over the years and spread to the French by the late 1770s. In France, the game was called “Le Lotto” and was played among wealthy Frenchmen. A version of the game was played in Germany to help students to learn spelling, math and history in the 1800s. A carnival pitchman, who was on tour in Germany, introduced it to America. It was in 1929 and it was known as “Beano”. He explored the potential for the game as he made some changes to the game he learnt. A New York toy salesman named Edwin S. Lowe visited a carnival in Atlanta, Georgia where he first saw the game being played. The crowd was very curious and quite excited about the game. The game was being played in a tent and it engaged the crowd so much, that the person in charge of the tent had much difficulty ending the game. This was evident when he made attempts to bring the game to close as persons would complain of not having had a chance at the game. It was after much effort that he was successful. Lowe, himself, was not able to play based on the thick crowd. However, upon returning to his hometown in New York, Mr. Lowe introduced the game to friends. The same kind of excitement was...
Who Invented Medicine?

Who Invented Medicine?

The history of medicine began when primitive peoples learned to use plants and herbs to cure their illnesses. There are 25,000 year old drawings in the Lascaux caves in France showing plants being used for healing. These drawings are the earliest evidence of plant medicinal use. Medicine in Ancient Egypt The oldest known Egyptian remedies go back to 3000 BC. As far back as 2750 BC the Egyptians had performed rudimentary forms of surgery. The Edwin Smith papyrus states the Egyptians dealt with illnesses by examination and doing prognosis. It should be noted though that the Edwin Smith papyrus is just one kind. Other papyri showed the Egyptians relying on magic to ward off diseases. Greek and Roman Medicine The history of medicine in Greece was quite advanced. Hippocrates has been termed the father of modern medicine. Hippocrates and his corpus were the ones who first recognized the importance of finger clubbing in detecting lung ailments. Hippocrates also classified illnesses as either chronic, endemic etc. He is also the first doctor to perform chest surgery. But he is probably best known for the Hippocratic Oath, which is still taken by doctors today. The Romans were noted for their surgical instruments. They were the ones who made use of scalpels, surgical needles and specula. They were also instrumental in developing cataract operations. Medicine in the Medieval Age A study of the history of medicine shows that it suffered a decline during ths period. The fall of Rome was followed by economic collapse. Except for a few monasteries, medical knowledge were limited to the few. People relied on superstition and folklore to get rid of ailments. It was only during the Renaissance that interest in medicine was reignited. It began with...
Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac?

Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac?...

Who Invented the Chinese Zodiac? The Chinese Zodiac is not a “zodiac” at all since it is neither based on the constellations nor is it a division of the ecliptic. Rather it is a way to observe time in cycles. There are no written record so who invented the Chinese Zodiac. However there are many theories about its origin. One story relates that the ancient Chinese used to keep time by the use of ten “heavenly stems” and twelve “earthly branches.” Different combinations of these stems and branches were used to tell the month, year, day and hour. The calculations were too complicated for average folk, so they used common animals to symbolize the time divisions. The story tells us that the famous Yellow Emperor was the first to use the Chinese Zodiac. He introduced it in the year 2,600 B.C. to begin the Chinese Lunar Year. In ancient China, the emperors were well schooled in astrology. It was believed that one had to know the ways of the stars and the heavens to be a worthy ruler. Legendary Origin of the Chinese Zodiac A couple of legends exist telling why the Chinese Zodiac is ordered the way it is. According to one version, the Buddha summoned all the animals in the world to a meeting. Only the twelve animals – rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog and pig – heeded his call. The Buddha rewarded each animal by making it the ruler of one of the signs. He gave them each year according to their order of arrival. A second version narrates how the beasts argued over who should come first in the yearly cycle. So the Jade Emperor told them to race...
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