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Who Invented the Machine Gun?

Who Invented the Machine Gun?...

The development and history of the machine is complex, but the fact is that Hiram Maxim was the first one to invent and use a machine gun that was self powered. The American inventor showed off his work to the British Army in 1885. He had invented it a year earlier in 1884. The Early Years of the Machine Gun Prior to Maxim’s invention, inventors had begun experimenting with the idea of a continuous rapid fire gun. In 1718, James Puckle came up with the Defence Gun. It consisted of a revolver mounted on a cylinder base. It could fire 60 shots in seven minutes, but the cylinder had to be adjusted manually. Other early designs included the Wilson Agar’s Coffee Mill gun and the Billinghurst–Requa. Both were widely used during the Civil War. These firearms were important in the early history of the machine gun as it gave inventors an idea of what the design had to be like. The Maxim Machine Gun and Others This rapid fire weapon was invented by the American Richard Gatling in 1861. It was first used by the US Army in 1865 and it would also become popular with European armies. Tests by the British Army showed it could fire 600 shots in two minutes. Maxim’s invention (the Maxim Machine Gun) became popular because of its efficiency. It was able to fire 500 rounds every minute. The key was using the recoil to remove the used cartridge and set the new one in place. The history of the machine gun reveals the Maxim gun was bought by the British in 1889. A year later, the Germans, Italians and Russians started ordering Maxim’s machine guns. The success of Hiram Maxim’s weapon inspired others...
Who Invented McDonalds?

Who Invented McDonalds?

Mcdonalds is one of the leading and largest hamburger fast food chains in the world. According to reports, 47 million customers visit franchises of the food service provider daily. The restaurant serves various items like chicken products, cheeseburgers, hamburger, milk shakes and soft drinks. To enhance its sales, the food service provider also added healthy foods in its menu including a vegetable salad as well as wraps. The corporation started in 1940 in the United States. To know more about the restaurant, it is best to identify the people behind the development and success of Mcdonalds. History of the Fast Food Chain Who invented Mcdonalds? Mac and Dick Macdonald developed the concept for the fast food chain in 1940 when they moved their small hotdog stand from the Monrovia Airport to the 14th and E Street at the U.S. Route 66 in San Bernadino, California. At this time, the most popular and in-demand product that they sell is hamburger. After eight years, the brothers changed the menu and introduced the Speedee Service System in their restaurant. The system gave them advantage over other diners in the area because they prepare the burgers before customers ordered the products. In 1953, Mac and Dick Macdonald arranged with Neil Fox to franchise the restaurant. The first franchise of the restaurant was opened in Phoenix, Arizona. During the same year, the second and third franchises of Mcdonalds were opened in Saginaw, Michigan as well as in Downey, California, respectively. In 1955, entrepreneur Ray Kroc arranged with the brothers to open the Mcdonalds Systems Inc. He opened the ninth franchise of the fast food chain at Des Plaines in Illinois on April 15, 1955. The improvement in the sales continued until in 1958, the...
Who Invented Plastic Wrap?

Who Invented Plastic Wrap?...

Plastic wrap is such a common and ordinary thing you can find in every house every day. If you have food left over after a meal it is sometimes quite common to put them in a plate and cover them with this film. The idea is to cover and seal off any food you want to put inside containers in order to keep them fresh. Its invention is credited to Ralph Wiley from Dow Chemical. You will usually get plastic wrap in rolls contained in boxes. Each box usually comes with a cutting edge to make cutting the plastic film a lot easier. Every plastic film sticks to containers like an adhesive sealing food tight. It takes on different names depending on the location. In the United Kingdom, it’s called a cling-film. Some people in the United States call it cling wrap while it is called glad wrap. Invention of the Plastic Wrap The very first sheet of plastic ever used for wrapping anything was called cellophane. It was invented by Jacques Brandenberger, a Swiss chemist, in 1911. It was used as packaging and was quite favored due to the fact that it was transparent. However, it was never used to wrap or seal food. Needless to say, that isn’t the same as the plastic wrap that we use nowadays. The plastic wrap that we are familiar with is used primarily to wrap or cover food. Saran is the very first sheet of plastic to be used to wrap food. Saran or Saran Wrap is a trade name of Dow Chemical. This actually refers to various polymers and monomers that has properties that act like a barrier. Compared to other plastics, this plastic wrap is able to contain aroma...
Who Invented the White Board?

Who Invented the White Board?...

The history of whiteboards began in the mid 1960s. It’s still a mystery as to who actually invented it. Some think that it began in China, but there is no real way to be sure. The first company to mass produce porcelain on steel write on / wipe off whiteboard (called LCS) was Claridge Products. Whiteboards and Chalkboards The whiteboards evolved from the chalkboards (or blackboards). Although chalkboards were popular, some teachers and students were allergic to chalk. When material was wiped off from the boards, the dust would fly off. By the 1960s, early versions of the whiteboard began to appear. However the chalkboards were still popular. It was in the late 1980s that reports of chalk allergies became widely known, changing the history of whiteboards forever. The Evolution of the Whiteboard The early ones that came out were comprised of melamine. Not only was it costly, but excessive use left faint images of the material on it. Cleaning was also difficult. The enamel on steel write on / wipe off magnetic whiteboard was produced by Magiboards in Britain. In the United States, inventor Michael Boone helped popularized the Boone Board dry erase board. Improvements As the whiteboard became more popular, innovations and improvements from various companies emerged. Most important of these innovations was reducing the glossiness of the surface. This gloss resulted in glares which was distracting for students. The history of whiteboards shows that by the late 2000s, high quality paint coating was being used. This resulted in a very clear surface that was easy to write on. Whiteboard Surfaces Most whiteboards use any of the following types for their materials: melamine, painted steel, magnetic glass or porcelain. Melamine is the least costly and is also...
Who Invented the Umbrella?

Who Invented the Umbrella?...

The long history of the umbrella makes it impossible to determine who invented it first. But there is strong evidence indicating the device has been used by many ancient cultures and civilizations. Ancient Middle East The word parasol was synonymous with umbrella during its early history. Archaeologists have discovered bas relief in Nineveh showing he parasol. It is held by a servant over the head of the king to protect him from the sun’s heat. Except for the connecting curtain, it looks a lot like the modern day umbrella. The Persians also employed the umbrella. Several sculptures have been unearthed showing attendants holding an umbrella over the king. The history of the umbrella goes back as far as ancient Egypt. The umbrella there assumed the form of a flagellum. This was a fan made up of palm leaves fastened on a long stick. Ancient Greece and Rome In 5th century Greece, the umbrella was frequently used by women. It wasn’t just used to shield them from heat; it was also a fashion accessory. Aristophanes notes that the umbrella (called skiadeion) could be opened and closed. Male Greeks rarely used the umbrella as it was seen as a female fashion accessory. It also had some religious significance as it was utilized in Dionysian rites. Roman writers like Ovid made frequent mention of the parasol. Even at this stage in the history of the umbrella, it was still used mainly by women. However it was employed mostly for fashion rather than protection from rain or heat. The Umbrella in Asia The umbrella was widely used in ancient China. There is evidence that umbrellas was had existed by 21 AD. The Chinese historians and writers at the time stated it was used...
Who Invented the Barbeque?

Who Invented the Barbeque?...

Many people would say that barbecue originated in America. So an American was probably the one who invented the barbecue. But others say that if barbecue or grilling has a country of origin, it’s probably Canada. Early natives of Canada were said to be experts in this type of cooking meat. So, who first cooked in barbecue style? The Cowboys Some sources say it was in the 1800s when the man who invented barbecue turned up on the scene. It was a cowboy who slow cooked his tough and sinewy meat over burning charcoals to tenderize it. Cowboys then were rationed with the lesser quality beef parts. However, they also got beef and pork ribs from time to time. But in particular, who invented the barbecue? Is there a specific cowboy name? No one knows. What is sure is that America has a long history of grill or roast cooking. The Taino Indians Experts say it is quite likely that the Taino Indians were the ones who invented the barbecue. They were natives living in the Bahamas. They hunted animals for food and cooked them in various ways. Among them is called “barbacoa” in the native dialect. It is done by smoking meat using a specific utensil where meat is placed while being grilled or roasted on fire. Indeed, the Tainos were likely to be the people who invented the barbecue. The French In French, “barbe a queue” refers to roasting or grilling a whole pig. Literally, “from beard to tail,” it means the pig will not be chopped up and cooked over fire. Instead, it will be cooked whole with head, body, and tail intact. Only the innards will be disposed of. Looking at this closely, one might...
Who Invented Zero?

Who Invented Zero?

Few persons ever sit down and think about numbers and where they come from; it is just one of those things that we take for granted. Even if a person does wonder where numbers come from, the typical answer is that numbers originated with Roman numerals, but there are records of numbers being used as far back as 6000 BCE; however this only refers to numbers starting from 1, what about the number zero, where did it come from? The history of the zero is different from that of other numbers as ancient numerical systems did not have a zero, and a space was used where a zero should be. So let’s talk a little about the number zero and how it got into the numerical system. Where Zero Came From There are a lot of different stories about where the number zero comes from; one story says that the zero was first used as a number in India in the 9th century AD by Indian mathematician Aryabhata. It is also said that Indian scholar Pingala along with his fellow scholars used the Sanskrit word ??nya to refer to the number zero. Another story says that the number zero was invented by the Mayan civilization for use on their calendars, while yet another story claims that the zero dates back to 300 B.C. and was invented in Babylon. In the European society there is no evidence of the number zero being used until after 800 AD by the Arabs who were coming to trade with the Europeans; the name zero was also derived from the Arabic language. By 130 AD Ptolemy was using a small circle with a long over-bar to represent a zero; this symbol was used by...
Who Invented the Pencil Sharpener?

Who Invented the Pencil Sharpener?...

A look at the history of pencil sharpeners shows that the Frenchman Bernard Lassimone was the first to get a patent for pencil sharpeners in 1828. Following his invention, other designers made improvements and refinements. The Early Pencil Sharpeners Pencils had been invented before the sharpener and people used knives to sharpen them. It was a tedious process and the result was uneven. After Lassimone’s invention, Therry des Estwaux came out with a mechanical sharpener in 1844. It took a while before the devices were accepted. But by 1865 companies were already manufacturing pencil sharpeners. A company called Eureka filed a patent for a small sharpener sometime in the mid 1860s. By the 1880s, several companies started producing them in larger numbers. One of the most well known companies in the early history of pencil sharpeners was Eagle Pencil Company in New York. A Look at Early Pencil Sharpeners From the 1880s to the early 1900s, many kinds of pencil sharpeners were developed in Europe and America. The electric sharpeners came out around 1917, but other types were produced. 1916’s New Era Pencil Sharpener resembled a plunger. The pencil would be placed inside the device and press it again and again. This process sharpened the blade. Another unique device was the Babock Duplex Pencil Sharpener. The device was patented in 1900 and came with a rotary of 6 blades. The history of pencil sharpeners shows that it was operated in the following manner. When the pencil was inserted, the blades would rotate around it. The right hand operates the crank that rotates the blade. The left hand operates the metal bar. One of the earliest sharpeners was invented by Guhl and Hurbeck in 1897 in Germany. It was called...
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