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Who Invented Numbers?

Who Invented Numbers?

Numbers or symbols used for counting have existed since man learned to count. Archeologists and historians estimate that numbers were first used around 32,000 years ago. They base this theory on archeological findings such as bones and rocks with marks on them. These may have been counting or tally signs used to keep track of time or quantities of objects, such as food or livestock. Simple Systems The very first number system must have been a tallying system. Tallying systems have no complex symbols or place values. It is the simplest counting system though not practical for dealing with large quantities of number. Our modern number system has 10 as its base or place value. A place value simplifies number representation and counting. Another simple number system was the ordinal counting system. It is thought to have started when man began counting with his fingers, each finger standing for a unique number. Place Value Systems A couple of ancient civilizations invented number systems with place values. The oldest was the Mayan system with 60 at its base, around 3400 BC. The Egyptians invented a 10 base system in 3100 BC. The modern place value system also has 10 as its compression figure. It came from India by way of the Arabs. Invention of Number Zero The number zero was used by various peoples including the Mayans, Egyptians, Babylonians and Indians. The Egyptians used zero in their accounting records. The Indians referred to zero as “the emptiness.” The inquisitive Greeks were puzzled by this figure and developed many interesting philosophical views on the subject. In fact, occultists and mystics used the number zero to symbolize the nothingness, or void state of things. Invention of Negative Numbers The Chinese invented numbers...
Who Invented the First Apple Computer?

Who Invented the First Apple Computer?...

The first Apple computer was conceived by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak and sold on July 1976. It consisted of a motherboard, memory and CPU. The history of Apple computer shows the company was incorporated a few months after the Apple I went on sale. Early History The Apple I sold very well and inspired Wozniak and Jobs to develop the Apple II. The Apple II came with a 5 ¼ floppy drive and employed color and graphics. The machine was even more successful than the Apple I. The Apple II was bought by educators and hobbyists. Soon the Apple II became a mainstay in schools where computers were being taught. Another welcome feature of the Apple II was its open architecture. This design allowed third party vendors to create applications for the computer. The history of Apple computer shows that by 1978, the machine had also become a mainstay in business offices. This was due to the appearance of various third party business applications on the Apple II. The Lisa and the Macintosh The Apple II was followed by the Apple III which was a commercial failure. The computer improved very little from its predecessor. It also had a number of technical glitches that affected its performance. The company was also unable to make gains on the business front. It would lose its business market share to IBM. In response, Steve Jobs went to Pao Alto Research Laboratory, run by Xerox. There he was able to recruit its most brilliant researchers. It was this team of researchers who designed the GUI (graphical user interfaced), pull down menus and the use of a mouse. This would be an important point in the history of Apple computer. In 1983, the...
Who Invented Tennis?

Who Invented Tennis?

Amongst the top sports today, one of the most popular and exciting is tennis. Governed by the International Tennis Federation, it is truly fun and entertaining to watch, thanks to its highly interesting rules and other fundamental aspects. The popularity of the sport is highly attributed to its rich television exposure, particularly in the coverage of major tennis events like the U.S. Open, Wimbledon and the French Open. In addition, the Australian Open is also part of the Grand Slam tournaments of the sport. Learn more about the game by looking back at its colorful history including who invented tennis. The Invention of Tennis Who invented tennis? According to many sports historians, Walter Clopton Wingfield invented the modern version of the game. Some time in December 1873, he created the design and patented the sport referred to as sphairistike, which shares many similarities with the modern-day form of the game. By 1877, the first Wimbledon championships were held in London, England. Additional Facts and Other Interesting Information Tennis is played basically with tennis balls and tennis racquets. In terms of play, it is important to take note of the different important aspects involved in the game such as the scoring, single point plays and lines. Likewise, it is important to become familiar with the different parts and limits of a tennis court in order to become great players of the game. Generally, the game is played in four different types of surfaces, namely carpet, grass, hard and clay. Major events like the U.S. Open and the Australian Open use hard surfaces. On the other hand, Wimbledon events use grass as surface, while the French Open games are usually set on clay courts. Players can execute eight different kinds of...
Who Invented Opera?

Who Invented Opera?

The history of opera began in the 1500s in Italy. Jacopo Peri’s Dafne (1598) is widely held to be the first opera ever performed. The Earliest Operas By the 15th century, several new musical instruments had emerged, notably the trumpet. This instrument, along with other ones, changed the face of stage plays considerably. The result was that actors had to belt out their lines or sing along so their voices wouldn’t get drowned out by the music. This innovative approach would gain popularity throughout Europe. The Medici family of Florence was known for being patrons of the arts. Some historians believe that they commissioned Jacopo Peri to compose Dafne in 1598. In the history of opera, this play is often singled out as the first. However some historians bevel opera came about in stages and not via one play. Opera Spreads throughout Europe The impact of Dafne and succeeding plays was immense. The new musical form spread from Italy to France, Germany and the Austrian Empire. With the exception of Italy however, acceptance of opera was limited to the wealthy and aristocratic. Opera took a strong hold in Venice, and it would eventually become the staging ground for some of the finest operas in the continent. Claudio Monteverdi became one of the leading composers of the Renaissance. His inaugural play Orpheo was conducted in 1607. What set him apart from the others was that his plays were designed for everyone. Unlike other operas, his compositions had appeal for both royalty and merchant. This was a significant point in the history of opera. As opera became widespread, two forms emerged, opera seria (dramatic) and opera buffa (comedic). At the same time, stories changed. The storylines became more complex, with symbolism...
Who Invented Bowling?

Who Invented Bowling?

There are those who wonder who invented bowling. Bowling is a sport that brings various health benefits. It is basically an anaerobic type of exercise that is comparable to lifting free weights and walking. This popular sport is older than you might think. Let’s go over the history of the game to figure out who invented bowling. Earliest History There are those who believe that you can trace the history of bowling all the way to the stone age. Flinders Petrie, a British anthropologist found evidence of this game in ancient times. Along with a team of archaeologists, he found evidence of a game that resembles bowling in Egypt in a find they made in the 1930’s. Among the unearthed objects from a grave of a small child they found a somewhat primitive form of the game. This is an interesting evidence to point to the Egyptians to be those who invented bowling. Of course, this discovery will not go on without any challenges. There are those who went on to argue that the game didn’t actually begin in Egypt but in some other place some time later. Other Possible Origins The argument against crediting the creation of bowling to the Egyptians is contested. A German historian by the name of William Pehle claims that the game of bowling actually originated in Germany. He gives 300 AD as the date of the game’s origin. The claim that the Germans are to be credited as the ones who invented bowling is not too far fetched. The game takes origins as a religious ceremony that was used to determine if one has no sin. German monks introduced the game to the populace as a way to test the people’s faith. English...
Who Invented Coca Cola?

Who Invented Coca Cola?

As one of the most highly recognized soft drink brands in the world today, many people love Coca Cola because of its sweet fine taste and refreshingly nice flavor. Introduced since 1886, this product is manufactured by the Coca-Cola Company. Today, it comes in different enticing varieties including Coca-Cola Vanilla, Coca-Cola Zero and Diet Coke. In order to know more about this great product, it is good to learn its history including information on the person who invented Coca Cola. The Invention of Coca Cola Who invented Coca Cola? Released in 1886, the recipe for this highly popular soft drink was invented by John Pemberton some time in 1885. Its original name was Pemberton’s French Wine Coca, which was basically an alcoholic beverage made up of cocaine and wine. At first, the intended purpose for developing such product was to treat different kinds of illnesses including impotence, headache as well as neurasthenia. Likewise, it was also used to cure other diseases such as dyspepsia and morphine addiction. Additional Facts and Other Important Information The invention of Coca-Cola started out when Pemberton was working as a chemist and druggist in Columbus, Georgia. In his quest to produce a coca wine, he combined damiana, kola nut and coca, and later on called the mixture Pemberton’s French Wine Coca. Because of the temperance legislation that was implemented in Fulton County and Atlanta some time in 1885, he decided to create a non-alcoholic variant of the original mixture. Frank Mason Robinson, who was then a significant marketer of the product during those times, coined the name Coca-Cola. Pemberton advertised his product as invigorating, exhilarating, refreshing and delicious. Furthermore, he claimed that it brought different health benefits to drinkers. He said that this formula...
Who Invented the word Blog?

Who Invented the word Blog?...

Who invented the word “blog”? Introduction Blog is short for weblog. The term weblog was first coined in December 1997 by an American blogger named Jorn Barger. He used it to describe he would “log the web” as he surfed online. Later another blogger named Peter Merholz changed weblog to “we blog” in a 1999 post. Soon people were dropping the other word and just used “blog.” Jorn Barger Biography Jorn Barger was born in Yellow Springs, Ohio in the year 1953. He was the editor of “Robot Wisdom,” a widely read blog from the early days of blogging. Barger liked to blog about the Irish writer James Joyce and artificial intelligence. He participated heavily in Usenet newsgroups in the 1990s, writing about Joyce, Kate Bush and other topics. He came up with a newsgroups “law” stating that the more interesting one’s own life is, the less he or she posts in online discussions. Barger created the Robot Wisdom weblog posting links about politics, technology, internet culture, books, artificial intelligence and other subjects. It became an online journal recording his day to day intellectual and reading activities. Barger’s blog gained wide acclaim. The influential New York Times remarked that the Robot Wisdom made life easier for people. With the blog, one could gain quick access to quality information without having to search the web by oneself. The Register praised Barger as well, saying no one could read news better than he. However the blog pioneer is not without critics. He has come under fire several times for allegedly racist comments against the Jews and Judaism. Blog Basics Blogs have gone from being simple web journals to big business. There are several types of blogs, such as: Personal blogs –...
Who Invented the Cell Phone?

Who Invented the Cell Phone?...

The mobile or cell phone was invented by Martin Cooper in 1973. The history of the cell phone shows that Nathan Stubblefield had a patent in 1908. However the patent was for cave radio phones and not the mobile device as we know it today. Early History As stated, Stubblefield’s patent was for cave radio telephones, as the device was known then. The mobile phone’s origin can be traced back to the 1940s. Bell Labs had already made some mobile base stations. These were refined in the 1960s but they were mainly for radio telephony. The main users of radio telephony during those days were the military. These hand held radio gadgets had been patented in 1969 to George Sweigert. The history of the cell phone began in 1945 and these early phones are now called zero generation phones. It consisted of a solitary base that would cover a specific spot and had very limited coverage. First Generation Phones Cooper’s invention was patented on October 17, 1973. the first phone call was made by Cooper months before he applied for the patent, on April 3, 1973. He made the call to Dr. Joel Engel, a researcher at AT&T’s Bell Labs. Cooper was working at Motorola at the time, and the call was made with several media people present. Soon after, companies started making cellular networks. Although the telephone was still dominant, other companies started coming out with cell phones, although they were still large and heavy. Second Generation Phones The next stage in the history of the cell phone was the development of 2G (second generation) phones. Among the earliest 2G phone systems were GSM, IDEN, and IS-95. GSM networks started appearing in 1991 (specifically in Finland). Compared with...
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